Biofeedback and Self-regulation

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 265–273 | Cite as

Changing measurement instrument at follow-up a potential source of error

  • Timothy Cahn
  • Jeffrey R. Cram
Instrumentation And Methodology


The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether headache activity information collected over the phone can be directly compared with headache activity information collected by systematic self-observation without jeopardizing internal validity because of calibration differences between the two measurement methods. A number of headache studies have relied on phone information for long-term follow-up data, while using systematic self-observation to collect all other data. Twenty-six headache sufferers participating in a tension headache study reported their headache activity over the phone and subsequently charted their headaches. Correlations were computed between the two measures. Results indicated that differences exist in the calibration of the two measurement methods. This seriously limits the conclusions of studies that used phone information to obtain follow-up data. Other recommendations concerning follow-up methodologies are discussed.


Health Psychology Measurement Method Internal Validity Measurement Instrument Activity Information 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Timothy Cahn
    • 1
  • Jeffrey R. Cram
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, NI-25University of WashingtonSeattle

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