Biofeedback and Self-regulation

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 69–89 | Cite as

The effects of frontal EMG biofeedback and progressive relaxation upon hyperactivity and its behavioral concomitants

  • Lendell Williams Braud
Articles

Abstract

Hyperactive children(N=15) and nonhyperactive children(N=15) were compared. Hyperactive children were found to possess significantly higher(p < .002) muscular tension levels and, in addition, presented more behavioral problems and had lower test scores. Both electromyographic(EMG) biofeedback and progressive relaxation exercises were successful in the significant reduction of muscular tension, hyperactivity, distractability, irritability, impulsivity, explosiveness, aggressivity, and emotionality in hyperactive children. The greatest improvement was seen in the area of “emotionality—aggression”(irritability, explosiveness, impulsivity, low frustration tolerance, aggression). No differences were seen in the EMG improvement of drug and nondrug hyperactive children; both made progress under these self-control techniques. However, nondrug children made greater improvements in the behavioral area. Both EMG biofeedback and progressive relaxation resulted in improvements on the test scores of hyperactive subjects(Bender-Gestalt, Visual Sequential Memory, Digit Span, Coding). The therapy would appear to be improved by the inclusion of mental relaxation, concentration, meditation, and mind-blanking exercises for mental control.

Keywords

Test Score Great Improvement Digit Span Lower Test Biological Psychology 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, E. K., Henkel, L. B., Harris, F. R., Baer, D. M., & Reynolds, N. J. Control of hyperactivity by social reinforcement of attending behavior.Journal of Educational Psychology 1967,58 231–237.Google Scholar
  2. Borland, B. L., & Heckman, H. K. Hyperactive boys and their brothers.Archives of General Psychiatry 1976,33 669–675.Google Scholar
  3. Bradley, C. The behavior of children receiving benzedrine.American Journal of Psychiatry 1937,94 577–585.Google Scholar
  4. Bradley, C. Benzedrine and Dexedrine in the treatment of children's behavior disorders.Pediatrics 1950,5 24–37.Google Scholar
  5. Braud, L. W., & Holliday, E. E.The effects of reinforcement on sitting behavior in a hyperactive girl. Unpublished manuscript, 1974.Google Scholar
  6. Braud, L. W., Lupin, M. N., & Braud, W. G.The use of EMG (electromyographic)biofeedback in the control of hyperactivity. Presented at the 11th Annual International Convention for Learning Disabilities, Houston, February 1974.Google Scholar
  7. Braud, L. W., Lupin, M. N., & Braud, W. G. The use of electromyographic biofeedback in the control of hyperactivity.Journal of Learning Disabilities 1975,8(7), 21–26.Google Scholar
  8. Budzynski, T. H., & Stoyva, J. An instrument for producing deep muscle relaxation by means of analog information feedback.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 1969,2 231–237.Google Scholar
  9. Burks, H. The hyperkinetic child.Exceptional Children 1960,27 18–26.Google Scholar
  10. Clements, S. D. Minimal brain dysfunction in children. Identification and terminology.Public Health Service Publication No. 1415, 1966.Google Scholar
  11. Clements, S. D. Minimal brain dysfunction in children. In S. Sapir & A. Nitzburg (Eds.),Children with learning problems. New York. Brunner/Mazel, 1973.Google Scholar
  12. Conners, K. C. A teacher rating scale for use in drug studies with children.American Journal of Psychiatry 1969,126(6), 152–156.Google Scholar
  13. Conners, K. C. Recent drug studies with hyperkinetic children.Journal of Learning Disabilities 1971,4(9), 12–19.Google Scholar
  14. Conners, K. C., Goyette, C., Southwick, D., Lees, J., & Andrulonis, P. Food additives and hyperkinesis: A controlled double-blind experiment.Pediatrics 1976,58(2), 154–166.Google Scholar
  15. Cowgill, M., Friedland, S., & Shapiro, R. Predicting learning disabilities from kindergarten reports.Journal of Learning Disabilities 1973,6(9), 50–55.Google Scholar
  16. Davids, A. An objective instrument for assessing hyperkinesis in children.Journal of Learning Disabilities 1971,4(9), 35–37.Google Scholar
  17. Denhoff, E., Davids, A., & Hawkins, R. Effects of dextroamphetamine on hyperkinetic children: A controlled double-blind study.Journal of Learning Disabilities 1971,4(9), 27–34.Google Scholar
  18. Feingold, B. F. Hyperkinesis and learning disabilities linked to artificial food flavors and colors.American Journal of Nursing 1975,75(5), 797–803.Google Scholar
  19. Feingold, B. F. Hyperkinesis and learning disabilities linked to the ingestion of artificial food colors and flavors.Journal of Learning Disabilities 1976,9(9), 19–27.Google Scholar
  20. Haynes, S. N., Griffin, P., Sides, H., Mooney, D., Lockwood, G., & McGowan, W. T.Relaxation training and electromyographic biofeedback in modification of specific psychophysiological disorders. Presented at the Eighth Annual Convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Chicago, November 1974.Google Scholar
  21. Horenstein, S. R. Resperine and chlorpromazine in hyperactive mental defectives.American Journal of Mental Deficiency 1957,61 525–529.Google Scholar
  22. Laufer, M. W., Denhoff, E., & Solomons, G. Hyperkinetic impulse disorder in children's behavior problems.Psychosomatic Medicine 1957,19 38–49.Google Scholar
  23. Lupin, M., Braud, L. W., Braud, W. G., & Duer, W. F. Children, parents, and relaxation tapes.Academic Therapy 1976,12(1), 105–113.Google Scholar
  24. Miller, R. G. Hyperactivity, self-concept, and achievement.Dissertation Abstracts International 1970,31(5A), 2014–2015.Google Scholar
  25. Minde, K., Lewin, D., Weiss, G., Lavigueur, H., Douglas, V., & Sykes, E. The hyperactive child in elementary school: A 5 year, controlled, followup.Exceptional Children 1971,38 215–221.Google Scholar
  26. Nall, A. Alpha training and the hyperkinetic child—is it effective?Academic Therapy 1973,9(1), 5–19.Google Scholar
  27. Pigeon, G., & Enger, A. Increasing assignment completion and accuracy in a hyperactive first grade student.School Application of Learning Theory 1972,4 24–30.Google Scholar
  28. Pihl, R. D. Conditioning procedures with hyperactive children.Neurology 1967,17 421–423.Google Scholar
  29. Powers, H. Dietary measures to improve behavior and achievement.Academic Therapy 1973–1974,9 203–214.Google Scholar
  30. Rogers, M. E., Lilienfeld, A. M., & Pasamanick, B. Prenatal and paranatal factors in the development of childhood behavior disorders.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1955,1 1–157.Google Scholar
  31. Ryan, T. A. Significance test for multiple comparison of proportions, variances, and other statistics.Psychological Bulletin 1960,57 318–328.Google Scholar
  32. Siegel, S.Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956.Google Scholar
  33. Silver, L. B. A proposed view on the etiology of the neurological learning disability syndrome.Journal of Learning Disabilities 1971,4(3), 6–16.Google Scholar
  34. Simpson, D. D., & Nelson, A. E. Attention training through breathing control to modify hyperactivity.Journal of Learning Disabilities 1974,7(5), 15–24.Google Scholar
  35. Stewart, M., Pitts, F., Craig, A., & Dieruf, W. The hyperactive child syndrome.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 1966,36 861–867.Google Scholar
  36. Toffler, A. E. The effect of intervention on children classified as minimal brain damage by psychological testing which has been confirmed or disconfirmed by EEG evaluation.Dissertation Abstracts International, 1972,32(10-B), 6062–6063.Google Scholar
  37. Twardosz, S., & Sajivaj, T. Multiple effects of a procedure to increase sitting in a hyperactive, retarded boy.Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis 1972,5 73–78.Google Scholar
  38. Valzelli, L. Psychoactive drugs and brain neurochemical transmitters.Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie 1972,196 (Suppl.), 221.Google Scholar
  39. Weiss, G., Werry, J., Minde, K., Douglas, V., & Sykes, D. Studies on the hyperactive child—V: The effects of dextroamphetamine and chlorpromazine on behavior and intellectual functioning.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1968,9 145–156.Google Scholar
  40. Wender, P. H.,Minimal brain dysfunction in children. New York: Wiley, 1971.Google Scholar
  41. Werry, J. S., Weiss, G., Douglas, V., & Martin, J. Studies on the hyperactive child—III: The effects of chlorpromazine upon behavior and learning ability.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 1966,5 292–312.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lendell Williams Braud
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentTexas Southern UniversityHouston

Personalised recommendations