Advertisement

Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archiv für Pharmakologie

, Volume 270, Issue 3, pp 262–273 | Cite as

Effects of staphylococcal alpha toxin on ion and water transports in isolated frog skin and bladder

  • O. Kadlec
  • R. Čapek
Article

Summary

The action of staphylococcal alpha toxin (ST) on potential difference (PD) and short-circuit current (SCC) of the isolated frog skin was studied. Ringer solution bathed the corial side and 20 mM NaCl bathed the epidermal side. PD and SCC decreased to about half after the administration of ST to the corial side of the skin. Later, SCC raised considerably. The replacement of 20 mM NaCl by KCl on the epidermal side of the ST-pretreated skin did not cause any substantial decrease of PD, while in the untreated skin the same replacement caused a sharp drop of PD. No secondary increase of SCC was observed after ST administration when the Ringer solution bathing the corial side of the skin contained 1/2 S04 instead Cl. In contrast to the normal skin, dilution from 120 to 2 mM of the NaCl solution on the epidermal side led to a PD increase in the toxin-treated skin.

Na+ fluxes across the skin in both directions were measured by means of radioisotopes. The direction of net flux of Na+ was reversed after treatment with the toxin. The results demonstrated two phases of ST action. Na+ transport is damaged in the first phase; in the second phase an outflux of Cl is induced.

The changes of water permeability of the frog urinary bladder were determined by weighing bags formed from the bladders. The addition of the toxin to the medium bathing the serosal side resulted in increased weight losses. The transport of water was increased.

Key-words

Staphylococcal Alpha Toxin Frog Skin and Bladder Na+, Cl and Water Transports 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aarhenius, S.: Immunochemistry, p. 12. New York: Macmillan Co. 1907.Google Scholar
  2. Bastide, F., Jard, S.: Actions de la noradrénaline et de l'oxytocine sur le transport actif de sodium et la perméabilité à l'eau de la peau de grenouille. Rôle du 3'5'-AMP cyclique. Biochim. biophys. Acta (Amst.)150, 113–123 (1968).Google Scholar
  3. Biber, T. U., Chez, R. A., Curran, P. F.: Na transport across frog skin at low external Na concentrations. J. gen. Physiol.49, 1161–1176 (1966).Google Scholar
  4. Cuthbert, A. W., Painter, E.: Independent action of antidiuretic hormone, theophylline and cyclic 3'5'-adenosine monophosphate on cell membrane permeability in frog skin. J. Physiol. (Lond.)199, 593–612 (1968).Google Scholar
  5. Freer, J. H., Arbuthnott, J. P., Bernheimer, A. W.: Interaction of staphylococcal alpha toxin with artificial and natural membranes. J. Bact.95, 1153–1168 (1968).Google Scholar
  6. Hodgkin, A. L., Katz, B.: The effect of sodium ions on the electrical activity of the giant axon of the squid. J. Physiol. (Lond.)108, 37–77 (1949).Google Scholar
  7. House, C. R.: The role of glandular activity in the electrical response of amphibian skin to noradrenalin. J. Physiol. (Lond.)202, 631–644 (1969).Google Scholar
  8. Kadlec, O., Čapek, R.: Staphylococcal alpha toxin induced ionic transport and permeability changes in frog skin. Biochem. Pharmacol.18, 1775–1777 (1969).Google Scholar
  9. Koefoed-Johnson, V., Ussing, H. H.: The nature of the frog skin potential. Acta physiol. scand.42, 298–308 (1958).Google Scholar
  10. Lindley, B., Hoshiko, T.: The effects of alkali metal ions on frog skin potential. J. gen. Physiol.47, 749–772 (1963).Google Scholar
  11. Madoff, M. A., Cooper, L. Z., Weinstein, L.: Studies of the biological activity of purified staphylococcal alpha toxin. III. Potassium release. J. Bact.87, 145–149 (1964).Google Scholar
  12. Natochin, J. V., Janáček, K., Rybová, R.: The swelling of frog bladder cells produced by oxytocin. J. Endocr.33, 171–177 (1965).Google Scholar
  13. Novák, E., Seifert, J., Rašková, H.: Effect of staphylococcal alpha toxin on mitochondrial Mg2+ (Na+, K+) activated adenosine triphosphatase. Toxicon8, 261–270 (1970).Google Scholar
  14. Rahal, J. J., Plaut, M. E., Weinstein, L.: Effect of purified staphylococcal alpha toxin on active sodium transport and aerobic respiration in the isolated toad bladder. J. clin. Invest.47, 1603–1614 (1968).Google Scholar
  15. Rašková, H., Nosál, R., Mašek, K.: L'effet de la Staphylotoxine alpha sur le mastocytes du rat. J. Physiol. (Paris)61, suppl. 1, 165–166 (1969).Google Scholar
  16. Schoffeniels, E., Salee, M. L.: The effect of the electrical stimulation of the brachial plexus on the potential difference of frog skin. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.14, 581–602 (1965).Google Scholar
  17. Šeferna, I., Rašková, H.: The effect of staphylococcus alpha toxin on the release of acetylcholine in the coaxially stimulated isolated ileum preparation of the guinea-pig. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.20, 393–395 (1968).Google Scholar
  18. Skou, J. C.: Enzymatic basis for active transport of Na+ and K+ across cell membrane. Physiol. Rev.45, 596–617 (1965).Google Scholar
  19. Ussing, H. H.: The active ion transport through the isolated frog skin in the light of tracer studies. Acta physiol. scand.17, 1–37 (1949).Google Scholar
  20. —, Zerahn, K.: Active transport of sodium as the source of electric current in the short-circuited isolated frog skin. Acta physiol. scand.23, 110–127 (1951).Google Scholar
  21. Weissmann, G., Sessa, G., Bernheimer, A. W.: Staphylococcal alpha toxin: Effects on artifical lipid spherules. Science154, 772–774 (1966).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Kadlec
    • 1
  • R. Čapek
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of PharmacologyCzechoslovak Academy of SciencesPragueCzechoslovakia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology and TherapeuticsMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations