, Volume 93, Issue 2, pp 125–135 | Cite as

Comparative ultrastructural studies on the prolactin cells in the pituitary of nine-spined sticklebacks,Pungitius pungitius L., with and without adenohypophyseal cysts

  • M. Benjamin


The ultrastructure of the prolactin cells in nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius L.) with and without large pituitary cysts was compared. Prolactin cells from animals with cysts were less active as regards hormone synthesis and release than those from animals without cysts. Rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and exocytotic figures were all more prominent in animals without cysts. Lysosomes and mature secretory granules were more plentiful in animals with cysts. The correlation between inactive prolactin cells and pituitary cysts argues against the hypothesis that cysts store prolactin released by holocrine secretion. It is more likely that the origin of cysts from degenerating cells signals extreme inactivity in the rostral pars distalis.


Endoplasmic Reticulum Prolactin Developmental Biology Golgi Apparatus Secretory Granule 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abraham, M., Dinari-Lavie. V., Lotan, R.: The pituitary ofAphanius dispar (Rüppell) from hypersaline marshes and freshwater. II. Ultrastructure of the rostral pars distalis. Cell Tiss. Res.179) 317–330 (1977)Google Scholar
  2. Ball, J.N.: Prolactin and osmoregulation in teleost fishes: a review. Gen. comp. Endocr., Suppl.2) 10–25 (1969a)Google Scholar
  3. Ball, J.N.: Prolactin (fish prolactin or paralactin) and growth hormone. In: Fish physiology (Hoar, W.S., and D.J. Randall, eds.), vol. II, p. 207–240. New York-London: Academic Press (1969b)Google Scholar
  4. Batten, T.F.C., Ball, J.N.: Quantitative ultrastructural evidence of alterations in prolactin secretion related to external salinity in a teleost fish (Poecilia latipinna). Cell Tiss. Res.185) 129–145 (1977)Google Scholar
  5. Batten, T.F.C., Ball, J.N., Grier, H.J.: Circadian changes in prolactin cell activity in the pituitary of the teleostPoecilia latipinna in freshwater. Cell Tiss. Res.165) 267–280 (1976)Google Scholar
  6. Benjamin, M.: Seasonal changes in the prolactin cell of the pituitary gland of the freshwater stickleback,Gasterosteus aculeatus, formleiurus. Cell Tiss. Res.152) 93–102 (1974a)Google Scholar
  7. Benjamin, M.: A morphometric study of the pituitary cell types in the freshwater stickleback,Gasterosteus aculeatus, formleiurus. Cell Tiss. Res.152) 69–92 (1974b)Google Scholar
  8. Benjamin, M.: The adenohypophysis of the flounder,Pleuronectes flesus, and the minnow,Phoxinus phoxinus. Cell Tiss. Res.157) 391–409 (1975)Google Scholar
  9. Benjamin, M.: Ultrastructure of the endocrine cell types in the adenohypophysis of the teleost,Poecilia latipinna — a morphometric model. Cell Tiss. Res.167) 125–146 (1976)Google Scholar
  10. Benjamin, M.: Cytological changes in prolactin, ACTH, and growth hormone cells of the pituitary gland ofPungitius pungitius L. in response to increased environmental salinities. Gen. comp. Endocr.36) 48–58 (1978)Google Scholar
  11. Benjamin, M., Ireland, M.P.: The ACTH — interrenal axis in the freshwater stickleback,Gasterosteus aculeatus formleiurus. Cell Tiss. Res.155) 105–115 (1974)Google Scholar
  12. Benjamin, M., Williams, J.G.: Pituitary cysts in the nine-spined stickleback,Pungitius pungitius L. I. Seasonal changes and salinity transfer experiments. Acta Zool. (In Press) (1979a)Google Scholar
  13. Benjamin, M., Williams, J.G.: Pituitary cysts in the nine-spined stickleback,Pungitius pungitius L. II. The structure and ultrastructure of cysts. Acta Zool. (In Press) (1979b)Google Scholar
  14. Ensor, D.M., Ball, J.N.: Prolactin and osmoregulation in fishes. Fed. Proc.31) 1615–1623 (1972)Google Scholar
  15. Ethridge, L., Benjamin, M.: The time-sequence of response of the prolactin cells of the freshwater teleost,Poecilia reticulata, to an altered environmental salinity. Cell Tiss. Res.182) 371–382 (1977)Google Scholar
  16. Geuze, J.J., Kramer, M.F.: Function of coated membranes and multivescular bodies during membrane regulation in stimulated exocrine pancreas cells. Cell Tiss. Res.156) 1–20 (1974)Google Scholar
  17. Holmes, R.L., Ball, J.N.: The pituitary gland: a comparative account. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1974Google Scholar
  18. Leatherland, J.F.: Seasonal variation in the structure and ultrastructure of the pituitary of the marine form (Trachurus) of the threespine stickleback,Gasterosteus aculeatus L. 1. Rostral pars distalis. Z. Zellforsch.104) 301–317 (1970)Google Scholar
  19. Leatherland, J.F., Ball, J.N., Hyder, M.: Structure and fine structure of the hypophyseal pars distalis in indigenous African species of the genusTilapia. Cell Tiss. Res.149) 245–266 (1974)Google Scholar
  20. Nagahama, Y., Nishioka, R.S., Bern, H.A.: Responses of prolactin cells of two euryhaline marine fishes,Gillichthys mirabilis andPlatichthys stellatus, to environmental salinity. Z. Zellforsch.136) 153–167 (1973)Google Scholar
  21. Smith, R.E., Farquhar, M.G.: Lysosome function in the regulation of the secretory process in cells of the anterior pituitary gland. J. Cell Biol.31) 319–347 (1966)Google Scholar
  22. Wendelaar Bonga, S.E., Greven. J.A.A.: The relationship between prolactin cell activity, environmental calcium, and plasma calcium in the teleostGasterosteus aculeatus. Observations on stanniectomized fish. Gen. comp. Endocr.36) 90–101 (1978)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Benjamin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyUniversity CollegeCardiffWales

Personalised recommendations