Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 159–168 | Cite as

A new pan-cultural facial expression of emotion

  • Paul Ekman
  • Wallace V. Friesen

Abstract

We obtained the first evidence of a facial expression unique to contempt. Contrary to our prediction, this contempt expression was not culture-specific but was recognized by people in Estonia S.S.R., Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Scotland, Turkey, the United States, and West Sumatra. Pan-cultural agreement about the contempt expression was as high as has been found previously for other emotions.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Birdwhistell, R. L. (1970).Kenesics and context. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  2. Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S. (1973). Facial expression of emotion in nonhuman primates. In P. Ekman (Ed.),Darwin and facial expression: A century of research in review (pp. 11–89). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  3. Ekman, P. (1972). Universals and cultural differences in facial expressions of emotion. In J. Cole (Ed.),Nebraska symposium on motivation, 1971. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  4. Ekman, P. (1973). Cross cultural studies of emotion. In P. Ekman (Ed.),Darwin and facial expression: A century of research in review (pp. 169–222). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  5. Ekman, P. (1984). Expression and the nature of emotion. In K. Scherer & P. Ekman (Eds.),Approaches to emotion (pp. 319–343). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  6. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1971). Constants across cultures in the face and emotion.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 17 124–129.Google Scholar
  7. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1975).Unmasking the face: A guide to recognizing emotions from facial clues. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  8. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1978).Facial Action Coding System: A technique for the measurement of facial movement. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  9. Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & Simons, R. C. (1985). Is the startle reaction an emotion?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(5), 1416–1426.Google Scholar
  10. Ekman, P., Levenson, R. W., & Friesen, W. V. (1983). Autonomic nervous system activity distinguishes between emotions.Science, 221 1208–1210.Google Scholar
  11. Ekman, P., Sorenson, E. R., & Friesen, W. V. (1969). Pan-cultural elements in facial displays of emotions.Science, 164(3875), 86–88.Google Scholar
  12. Fridlund, A. J., Ekman, P., & Oster, H. (in press). Facial expressions of emotion: Review of literature, 1970–1983. In A. Siegman & L. S. Feldstein (Eds.),Nonverbal behavior and communication, Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  13. Heider, K. G. (1984).Emotion: Inner state vs. interaction. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Denver.Google Scholar
  14. Izard, C. E. (1971).The face of emotion. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  15. Keppel, (1982).Design and analysis. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  16. Redican, W. R. (1982). An evolutionary perspective on human facial displays. In P. Ekman (Ed.),Emotion in the human face (2nd ed. pp. 212–280). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Ekman
    • 1
  • Wallace V. Friesen
    • 1
  1. 1.Human Interaction LaboratoryUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan Francisco

Personalised recommendations