The present report describes three experiments that examined the effects of sedative and stimulative music on performance decrement following frustration. A five-group design was used in the first experiment: No Treatment (NT), Frustration only (F), Frustration and Sedative music (F-SD), Frustration and Stimulative music (F-ST), and Frustration and Waiting (F-W). The second experiment assessed the differences in emotions associated with the two types of music, sedative and stimulative. After listening to each excerpt, subjects were required to report their feelings about each one, on a 15-point Semantic-Differential-type scale. The third experiment employed a three-group design: F-SD, F-ST, and F only. Music was also played during frustration manipulation. Results for the first experiment showed that while frustration plus sedative music reduced decrement in performance as compared with frustration only, stimulative music had no effect. The results of the second experiment showed that sedative music was highly correlated with calmness, tenderness, and contentedness, while stimulative music was related to tension, anger, boldness, and salience. The results of the third experiment were similar to those of Experiment 1 for effects of sedative music. Stimulative music, however, seemed to enhance the decrement in performance following frustration. The results are discussed with regard to the effects of music on performance, and the interaction of emotions and properties of sedative music in reducing the decremental effects of frustration on performance.
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The authors wish to express their gratitude to Robi for his help at various stages of conducting the research, to Amos Pickholz and Shlomo Yemini in data management, to Dov Har-Even for his aid in the data analyses, and to David Malkiel, Mimi, and Miriam Mishory for their valuable comments on earlier versions of the present manuscript.
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Caspy, T., Peleg, E., Schlam, D. et al. Sedative and stimulative music effects: Differential effects on performance impairment following frustration. Motiv Emot 12, 123–138 (1988). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00992169
- Social Psychology
- Differential Effect
- Present Report
- Performance Impairment
- Performance Decrement