Research in Higher Education

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 41–54 | Cite as

An examination of freshmen to senior general education gains across a national sample of institutions with different general education requirements using a mixed-effect structural equation model

  • William E. Knight
AIR Forum Issue


This study investigated differences in freshmen to senior student general education gains across institutions with varying patterns of general education requirements using a mixed-effect structural equation model. The subjects were 6,409 students at 34 nation-wide colleges and universities. Students attending institutions where less than 40 percent of undergraduate curricular requirements were devoted to general education and where there was not equal distribution of general education courses within the requirement were found to have significantly higher general education gains than did students who attended institutions where 40 percent or more of the undergraduate curriculum was devoted to general education and there was equal distribution of courses within the general education requirement.


Equation Model Structural Equation Structural Equation Model Education Research General Education 
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Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • William E. Knight
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for the Study of Higher and Postsecondary EducationThe University of MichiganAnn Arbor

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