Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 10, Issue 10, pp 1469–1476 | Cite as

Variability in accumulation of proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) in needles of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) following long-term budworm defoliation

  • Tom Walters
  • Helen A. Stafford


Long-term defoliation by budworms was associated with higher levels of soluble proanthocyanidins in the current year needles of Douglas-fir trees. The proanthocyanidin contents of needles from defoliated Douglas-fir trees were considerably more variable than those levels of undefoliated ones. The increased mean and variability of proanthocyanidin levels following defoliation may have interesting ecological consequences for Douglas-fir and its defoliators.

Key words

Proanthocyanidins condensed tannins plant-herbivore interactions Douglas-fir Pseudotsuga menziesii western spruce budworm Choristoneura occidentalis Lepidoptera Tortricidae nested ANOVA 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tom Walters
    • 1
  • Helen A. Stafford
    • 1
  1. 1.Biology DepartmentReed College PortlandOregon

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