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Photoelectric microscopes provide an improvement of approximately a decimal place in the error of focusing graduated scales. The work of the operator is made easier, his personal errors are virtually eliminated, stabilization of the temperature operating conditions of the measured scales and the comparator are facilitated, and the focusing can be made automatic.
The pulsed and photometric microscopes are the most promising. They have approximately the same error of focusing (0.01–0.05 μ); however, the pulsed microscopes have a larger field of vision and provide measurements not only of small displacements of graduations, but also of the spacing between them. On the other hand, their optical and electronic circuits are more complicated. The photometric microscopes have a smaller field of vision, but they have a simple design which raises their operational reliability.
Reasons for discrepancies between visual and photoelectric microscopes produced by the personal error of the observer  require further investigation.
KeywordsPhysical Chemistry Analytical Chemistry Temperature Operating Electronic Circuit Large Field
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