Kairomones and their use for management of entomophagous insects: III. Stimulation ofTrichogramma achaeae,T. pretiosum, andMicroplitis croceipes with host-seeking stimuli at time of release to improve their efficiency
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Frass from larvae of the corn earworm,Heliothis zea (Boddie) and scales fromH. zea moths (that are known to contain the host-seeking stimulus, tricosane) stimulate and orient host-seeking activity in femaleMicroplitis croceipes (Cresson), a larval parasite ofH. zea, andTrichogramma spp., egg parasites ofH. zea. When larval frass, moth scales, and tricosane were used as sign stimuli (releasers) forM. croceipes, T. pretiosum (Riley), andT. achaeae Nagaraji and Nagarkatti, respectively, at time of their release from laboratory containers, parasite performance improved, resulting in significantly increased rates of parasitization over that of unstimulated parasites. Stimulation ofM. croceipes with larval frass had an overriding effect on this parasite's innate tendency to disperse upon release, thereby increasing the numbers remaining and prolonging their retention in the target area. Supplying the appropriate host-seeking stimuli to these 3 hymenopterous parasites ofH. zea at time of their release to improve their efficiency greatly increases the probability of their effective utilization in pest management systems.
Key wordskairomones Trichogramma achaeae Trichogramma pretiosum Microplitis croceipes Heliothis Spp. host-seeking stimuli insect behavior releasers pest management biological control
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