Qualitative Sociology

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 3–28 | Cite as

Women in steel: The case of Ciudad Guayana, Venezuela

  • Cathy A. Rakowski


This paper analyzes the incorporation of women into heavy industry during the Ciudad Guayana employment boom of 1974–1979 and the reduction in female employment during the post-boom period. The first and second sections outline the features of female incorporation at a specialty steel plant and the state-owned steel mill. The third section describes the discrimination to which two groups of women, day laborers and engineers, were subjected. The fourth analyzes the response of women to discrimination.

The study suggests that male discriminatory behavior and female coping mechanisms result from the interaction of gender roles and stereotypes on the one hand, and institutional/structural factors on the other. Discriminatory practices and women's responses to them are mediated by class and age differences. These are shaped by the individuals' prior experiences and the historical context in which discrimination evolved.


Social Psychology Gender Role Social Issue Prior Experience Historical Context 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cathy A. Rakowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Michigan State UniversityUSA

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