Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 253–268 | Cite as

All-trans-farnesyl hexanoate and geranyl octanoate in the dufour gland secretion ofAndrem (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

  • Jan Tengö
  • Gunnar Bergström


The volatile material which emanates from the Dufour gland of femaleAndrena bees has been examined in 13 species. In 11 of these, all-trans-farnesyl hexanoate is the dominating compound, whereas in two species geranyl octanoate is the largest component of the volatile secretion. Either of these two terpene esters were also found as major component in the cephalic secretion of some maleNomada bees. Bees of the genusNomada are nest parasites onAndrena. The chemical identification was carried out by capillary gas chromatography using a splitter-free intake system, alone and in combination with mass spectrometry. Some farnesyl and geranyl esters were prepared in the course of the work by reacting terpenol and acid with CDI (N, N′-carbonyldiimidazole). The secretion is thought to serve as a nest marking.

Key words

bees volatile secretions marking mass spectrometry isoprenoids 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Tengö
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gunnar Bergström
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Ecological Station of Uppsala UniversityFärjestaden
  2. 2.Laboratory for Ecological Chemistry University of GöteborgMölndalSweden

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