Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 183–193 | Cite as

Phytotoxic substances in twelve subtropical grasses

  • Chang -Hung Chou
  • Chiu -Chung Young
Article

Abstract

Aqueous extracts of 12 subtropical grasses inhibited seed germination and radicle growth ofLactuca sativa var. Great Lakes at osmotic concentrations as low as 10 milliosmol.Acroceras macrum,Chloris gayana, Digitaria decumbens, andPanicum maximum exhibited the highest inhibition, whileCortaderia selloana revealed the least. Toxic spots were found on chromatograms of the ether fraction of aqueous extracts.Cynodon dactylon, Setaria sphacelata, andTripsacum laxum showed more than six toxic spots, whileAndropogon nodosum,Bracharia mutica, andChloris gayana gave less than three toxic spots. The phytotoxins ferulic, syringic,p-coumaric, vanillic,p-hydroxybenzoic, ando-hydroxyphenylacetic acids were identified. These compounds are differentially distributed in the 12 grasses studied. Additionally, most of these compounds were also found in the associated soils; the control (nonherb-growth) soil provided the toxic compounds in significantly less amount than did the grass soils.

Key words

allelopathy phytotoxins subtropical grasses ferulic acid syringic acid p-coumaric acid vanillic acid p-hydroxybenzoic acid o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Börner, H. 1960. Liberation of organic substances from higher plants and their role in the soil sickness problem.Bot. Rev. 26:393–424.Google Scholar
  2. Chou, C.-H. 1973. The role of phytotoxins in plant ecology, pp. 205–217,in T.-T. Kuo, C.-C. Chang, K.-Y. Jan and W.-C. Chang (eds.), Growth and Differentiation. Biology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  3. Chou, C.-H., andChung, Y.-T. 1974. The allelopathic potential ofMiscanthus floridulus.Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 15:14–27.Google Scholar
  4. Chou, C.-H., andMuller, C.H. 1972. Allelopathic mechanisms ofArctostaphylos glandulosa var. zacaensis.Am. Midl. Nat. 88:324–347.Google Scholar
  5. Chou, C.-H., andYoung, C.-C. 1974. Effects of osmotic concentration and pH on plant growth.Taiwania 19:157–165.Google Scholar
  6. Hais, I.M., andMacek, K. 1963. Paper Chromatography. Publishing House of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechoslovakia. 955 pp.Google Scholar
  7. McPherson, J.K., Chou, C.-H., andMuller, C.H. 1971. Allelopathic constitutents of chaparral shrubAdenostoma fasciculatum.Phytochemistry 10:2825–2933.Google Scholar
  8. Molisch, H. 1937. Der Einfluss eine Pflanze auf andere, Allelopathie. Jena, Fisher.Google Scholar
  9. Muller, C.H. 1966. The role of chemical interaction (allelopathy) in vegetational composition.Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 93:332–351.Google Scholar
  10. Muller, C.H. 1970. Phytotoxins as plant habitat variables, pp. 105–121,in C. Steelink and V. C. Runeckles (eds.), Recent Advances in Phytochemistry. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Muller, C.H., andChou, C.-H. 1972. Phytotoxins: An ecological phase of phytochemistry, pp. 201–216,in J. B. Harborne (ed.), Phytochemical Ecology. Academic Press, London and New York.Google Scholar
  12. Naqvi, H.H. 1969. Allelopathic effects ofLolium multiflorum. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Santa Barbara, California.Google Scholar
  13. Patrick, Z.A. 1971. Phytotoxic substances associated with the decomposition in soil of plant residues.Soil Sci. 111:13–18.Google Scholar
  14. Rasmussen, J.K., andRice, E.L. 1971. Allelopathic effects ofSporobolus pyramidatus on vegetational patterning.Am. Midl. Nat. 86:309–326.Google Scholar
  15. Rice, E.L. 1964. Inhibition of nitrogen-fixing and nitrifying bacteria by seed plants. I.Ecology 45:824–837.Google Scholar
  16. Rice, E.L. 1967. Chemical warfare between plants.Bios 38:67–74.Google Scholar
  17. Rice, E.L. 1968. Inhibition of nodulation of inoculated legumes by pioneer plant species from abandoned fields.Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 95:346–358.Google Scholar
  18. Rice, E.L. 1971. Inhibition of nodulation of inoculated legumes by leaf leachates from pioneer species from abandoned fields.Am. J. Bot. 58:368–371.Google Scholar
  19. Rice, E.L. 1972. Allelopathic effects ofAndropogon virginicus and its persistence in old fields.Am. J. Bot. 59:752–755.Google Scholar
  20. Rice, E.L. andPancholy, S.K. 1973. Inhibition of nitrification by climax ecosystems. II. Additional evidence and possible role of tannins.Am. J. Bot. 60:691–702.Google Scholar
  21. Tamés, R.S., Gesto, M.D.V., andVieitez, E. 1973. Growth substances isolated from tubers ofCyperus esculentus var.aureus.Physiol. Plant. 28:195–200.Google Scholar
  22. Tukey, H.B., Jr. 1971. Leaching of substances from plants, pp. 25–32,in Biochemical Interactions Among Plants. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  23. Vásquez, A., Mendez, J., Gesto, M.D.V., Seoane, E., andVieitez, E. 1968. Growth substances isolated from woody cutting ofSalix viminalis andFicus carica L.Phytochemistry 7:161–167.Google Scholar
  24. Wang, T.S.-C., Cheng, S.-Y., andTung, H. 1967a. Extraction and analysis of soil organic acids.Soil Sci. 103:360–366.Google Scholar
  25. Wang, T.S.-C., Yang, T.-K., andChuang, T.-T. 1967b. Soil phenolic acids as plant growth inhibitors.Soil Sci. 103:239–246.Google Scholar
  26. Whittaker, R.H. 1971. The chemistry of communities, pp. 10–19,in Biochemical Interactions Among Plants. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chang -Hung Chou
    • 1
  • Chiu -Chung Young
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of BotanyAcademia SinicaTaipeiRepublic of China

Personalised recommendations