Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 217–227 | Cite as

Effect of foliage proximity on attraction ofChoristoneura occidentalis andC. retiniana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to pheromone sources

  • Andrew M. Liebhold
  • W. Jan A. Volney


Pheromone-baited traps located close to both host and nonhost crowns were more attractive than traps located between crowns for bothC. occidentalis Freeman andC. retiniana (Walsingham) at both 10 m and at 1.5 m above the ground. At 10 m height, traps located in host foliage were more attractive than those located in nonhost foliage, but at 1.5m height there was no significant difference. These results were obtained for both dense and sparse populations ofC. occidentalis and sparse populations ofC. retiniana. We conclude that the tree species on which a virgin female is located is not an important factor restricting mating between closely relatedChoristoneura spp. Also, the tree species on which a trap is located may not be an important factor that must be standardized in developing pheromone monitoring systems forC. occidentalis andC. retiniana.

Key words

Pheromonetrap placement western spruce budworm modoc budworm Choristoneura occidentalis Choristoneura retiniana Lepidoptera Tortricidae sex pheromone sex attractant 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew M. Liebhold
    • 1
  • W. Jan A. Volney
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Entomology and ParasitologyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeley

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