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Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 557–566 | Cite as

Biocidal activity of algal toxins against immature mosquitoes

  • S. Dhillon
  • Mir S. Mulla
  • Yih-Shen Hwang
Article

Abstract

Extracts of two species of green algae, filamentousRhizoclonium hieroglyphicum Kütz and a phytoplankton,Chlorella ellipsoidea Gerneck, obtained with solvents in the laboratory were assayed againstAedes aegypti L.,Culex quinquefasciatus Say, andCuliseta incidens (Thomson). On extraction with petroleum ether, groundR. hieroglyphicum yielded an active crude extract which was chromatographed on a neutral alumina column and eluted consecutively with petroleum ether, benzene, and methanol. All three eluted fractions were found to induce significant mortality in test mosquito species. The benzene-eluted fraction was the least toxic. The methanol-eluted fraction was the most toxic to all species and exhibited juvenile hormone-like activity; it also caused morphogenetic changes in emerging adults. All three fractions delayed the rate of development of mosquito larvae by 2–5 days. Three supernatants ofC. ellipsoidea obtained on different occasions were tested against first instars ofC. quinquefasciatus. After the confirmation of their activity, all supernatants were extracted with diethyl ether, combined, and assayed against first- and fourth-stage larvae of the three mosquito species. The first-stage larvae ofC. quinquefasciatus andC. incidens were approximately three times more suspectible than those ofA. aegypti. However, fourth-stage larvae of the former two species were about twice as susceptible to the extract as those of the latter species. Dead first-stage larvae of all the species had a shrunken appearance. In general,C. ellipsoidea extract was quicker acting than that ofR. hieroglyphicum.

Key words

Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum Chlorella ellipsoidae algae algal toxins mosquito larvicides Aedes aegypti Culex quinquefasciatus Culiseta incidens Diptera Culicidae 

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Dhillon
    • 1
  • Mir S. Mulla
    • 1
  • Yih-Shen Hwang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyUniversity of CaliforniaRiverside

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