Advertisement

Lifestyles

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 299–316 | Cite as

Parents' time use: A 1967–1986 comparison

  • Margaret Mietus Sanik
Article

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to report the different time allocations of parents with an infant in 1967 and in 1986 in order to observe changes in household production, childcare, and total obligatory activities. The sample is a subset of 84 families from a 1967 study of two-parent families and from 108 families from a study of first-time parents in 1986.

Multivariate analysis of covariance is used to indicate the effects of variables such as age, education, and employment of the parents as well as appropriate interaction terms before allowing the factor of sample year to allow for variance. The effect for sample year then is adjusted for other variables in the sample. Significant differences in time use, all other variables held constant, are observed in mothers' time in childcare, in household production, and in total obligatory activities. Fathers' time in childcare and in total obligatory activities significantly increase. Implications for family well-being are drawn.

Key words

Roles Time Use 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andorka, R. (1987). Time budgets and their uses.Annual Review of Sociology, 13, 149–164.Google Scholar
  2. Becker, G. (1981).A treatise on the family. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Belsky, J., Spanier, J., & Rovine, M. (1983). Stability and change in marriage across the transition to parenthood.Journal of Marriage and the Family, 45, 567–577.Google Scholar
  4. Berheide, C., Berk, S., & Berk, R. (1976). Household work in the suburbs—the job and its participants.Pacific Sociological Review, 19, 491–518.Google Scholar
  5. Blood, R., & Wolfe, D. (1960).Husbands and wives. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
  6. Coverman, S., & Sheley, J. (1986). Change in men's housework and child-care time, 1965–1975.Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 413–422.Google Scholar
  7. Cowan, P., & Cowan, C. (1988). Changes in marriage during the transition to parenthood: Must we blame the baby? In G.Y. Michaels & W. A. Goldberg (Eds.),The transition to parenthood: Current theory and research (pp. 114–154). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Cowan, C., Cowan, P., Coie, L., & Coie, J. (1978). Becoming a family: The impact of a first child's birth on the couple's relationship. In W. Miller & L. Newman (Eds.).First child and family formation (pp.296–324). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center.Google Scholar
  9. Entwisle, D., & Doering, S. (1981).The first birth: A family turning point. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Feldman, H. (1971). The effects of children on the family. In A. Michel (Ed.),Family issues of employed women in Europe and America. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill.Google Scholar
  11. Fitzsimmons, C. (1950).The management of family resources. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  12. Glass, J. (1983). Pre-birth attitudes and adjustment to parenthood: When “preparing for the worst” helps.Family Relations, 32, 377–386.Google Scholar
  13. Hill, C., & Stafford, F. (1985). Lifetime fertility, childcare, and labor supply. In F.T. Juster & F. P. Stafford (Eds.),Time, goods, and well-being (pp. 471–492). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research.Google Scholar
  14. Juster, F. (1985). Investments of time by men and women. In F. T. Juster & F. P. Stafford (Eds.),Time goods, and well-being (pp. 177–204). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research.Google Scholar
  15. LaRossa, R., & LaRossa, M. (1981).Transition to parenthood. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. Miller, B., & Myers-Walls, J. (1983). Parenthood: Stresses and coping strategies. In H. I. McCubbin & C. R. Figley (Eds.),Stress and the family: Vol. 1. Coping with normative transitions (pp.54–73). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  17. Pleck, J. (1981, August).Changing patterns of work and family roles. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  18. Rawlings, S. (1989). Single parents and their children. In U.S. Bureau of the Census,Studies in Marriage and the Family (Current Population Reports, Series P-23, No. 162) (pp.13–25). Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  19. Robinson, J. (1977).How Americans use time. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  20. Robinson, J. (1985). Changes in time use: An historical overview. In F. T. Juster & F. P. Stafford (Eds.),Time, goods, and well-being (pp. 289–312). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research.Google Scholar
  21. Rogers, E. (1971).Communication of innovations: A cross-cultural approach. (2nd ed.) New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  22. Sanik, M. (1981). Division of household work: A decade comparison 1968–1977.Home Economics Research Journal, 10, 175–180.Google Scholar
  23. Sanik, M., & Mauldin, T. (1986). Single versus two parent families: A comparison of mothers' time.Family Relations, 35, 53–56.Google Scholar
  24. Waldron, H., & Routh, D. (1981). The effect of the first child on the marital relationship.Journal of Marriage and the Family, 43, 785–788.Google Scholar
  25. Walker, K., & Woods, M. (1976).Time use: A measure of household production of family goods and services. Washington, DC: Center for the Family of the American Home Economics Association.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margaret Mietus Sanik
    • 1
  1. 1.The Ohio State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations