Advertisement

Lifestyles

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 97–110 | Cite as

Stress and role satisfaction experienced by employed and nonemployed mothers with young children

  • Susan B. Crockenberg
Article

Abstract

The associations between employment status, role choice, social support, stressful events, and mothers' experiences of stress and role satisfaction were investigated. Interviews and questionnaires were used to obtain information from 105 mothers with two-year-old children. Role choice, social support, and stressful events each predicted the amount of stress mothers experienced in their lives, although not all did so independently. Employment status, role choice, and social support predicted role satisfaction.

Key words

Maternal Employment Social Support Role Satisfaction Stress Unemployment 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baruch, G., Biener, L., & Barnett, R. (1987). Women and gender in research on work and family stress.American Psychologist, 42 130–136.Google Scholar
  2. Burr, W., Leigh, G., Day, R., & Constantine, J. (1979). Symbolic interaction and the family. In W. Burr, R. Hill, F.I. Nye, & I. Reiss (Eds.),Contemporary theories about the family, Vol. 2 (pp. 42–111). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  3. Cobb, S. (1976). Social support as a moderator of life stress.Psychosomatic Medicine, 38 300–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cohen, S., Kamark, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress.Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24 385–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Crnic, K., Greenberg, M., & Slough, N. (1986). Early stress and social support influences on mothers' and high-risk infants' functioning in late infancy.Infant Mental Health Journal, 7 19–33.Google Scholar
  6. Crockenberg, S. (in press). Social support and parenting. In H. Fitzgerald, B. Lester, & M. Yogman (Eds.),Theory and research in behavioral pediatrics. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  7. Darian, J. (1976). Factors influencing the rising labor force participation rates of married women with preschool children.Social Science Quarterly, 56 614–630.Google Scholar
  8. Dean, A., & Lin, N. (1977). The stress-buffering role of social support.Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 165 403–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dunst, C., & Trivette, C. (1986). Looking beyond the parent-child dyad for the determinants of maternal styles of interaction.Infant Mental Health Journal, 7(1), 69–81.Google Scholar
  10. Eisenberg, P., & Lazarsfeld, P. (1938). The psychological effects of unemployment.Psychological Bulletin, 35 358–390.Google Scholar
  11. Ferree, M. (1976). Working class jobs: Housework and paid work as sources of satisfaction.Social Problems, 23 431–441.Google Scholar
  12. Gove, W., & Geerken, M. (1977). The effect of children and employment on the mental health of married men and women.Social Focus, 56 66–76.Google Scholar
  13. Guttman, L. (1945). A basis for analyzing test-retest reliability.Psychometrica, 10 255–282.Google Scholar
  14. Harrell, J., & Ridley, C. (1975). Substitute child care, maternal employment and the quality of mother-child interaction.Journal of Marriage and the Family, 37 556–564.Google Scholar
  15. Hayghe, H. (1986). Rise in mothers' labor force activity includes those with infants.Monthly Labor Review, 109 (2), 43–45.Google Scholar
  16. Hoffman, L. (1961). Effects of maternal employment on the child.Child Development, 32 187–197.Google Scholar
  17. Kandel, D., Davies, M., & Raveis, V. (1985). The stressfulness of daily social roles for women: Marital, occupational and household roles.Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 26 64–78.Google Scholar
  18. Kessler, R., & McRae, J., Jr. (1982). The effects of wives' employment on the mental health of men and women.American Sociological Review, 47 216–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Klein, R. (1985). Caregiving arrangements by employed women with children under 1 year of age.Developmental Psychology, 21 403–406.Google Scholar
  20. Lerner, J., & Galambos, N. (1985). Maternal role satisfaction, mother-child interaction, and child temperament: A process model.Developmental Psychology, 21 1157–1164.Google Scholar
  21. Levitt, M., Weber, R., & Clark, M. (1986). Social network relationships as sources of maternal support and well-being.Developmental Psychology, 22 310–316.Google Scholar
  22. Long, J., & Porter, K. (1984). Multiple roles of midlife women: A case for new directions in theory, research, and policy. In G. Baruch & J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.),Women in midlife (pp. 109–160). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  23. Mercer, R., Hackley, K., & Bostrom, A. (1984). Social support of teenage mothers.Birth defects: Original article series, 20 245–290.Google Scholar
  24. Merikangas, K. (1985, May).Sex differences in depression. Paper presented at the Murray Center (Radcliffe College) Conference: Mental Health in Social Context, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  25. Moen, P. (1985).Work and parental well-being: Social change in Sweden. Unpublished manuscript, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  26. Nye, F. I. (1959). Employment status of mothers and adjustment of adolescent children.Marriage and Family Living, 21, 240–244.Google Scholar
  27. Nye, F. I. (1963). The adjustment of adolescent children. In F.I. Nye & L. Hoffman (Eds.),The employed mother in America (pp. 133–141). Chicago: Rand-McNally.Google Scholar
  28. Pearlin, L., Lieberman, M., Menaghan, E., & Mullan, J. (1981). The stress process.Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22 337–356.Google Scholar
  29. Seligman, M. (1975).Helplessness. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  30. Tebbets, R. (1982). Work: Its meaning for women's lives. In D. Belle (Ed.),Lives in stress: Women and depression (pp. 83–95). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Thomson, E. (1980). The value of employment to mothers of young children.Journal of Marriage and the Family, 42 551–566.Google Scholar
  32. Thomas, L., McCabe, E., & Berry, J. (1980). Unemployment and family stress: A reassessment.Family Relations, 29 517–524.Google Scholar
  33. Verbrugge, L. (1982). Women's social roles and health. In P. Berman & E. Ramey (Eds.),Women: A developmental perspective (Publication No. 82-2298, pp. 49–780). Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health.Google Scholar
  34. Weinraub, M., & Wolf, B. (1983). Effects of stress and social supports on mother-child interactions in single and two-parent families.Child Development, 54 1297–1311.Google Scholar
  35. Woods, M. (1972). The unsupervised child of the working mother.Developmental Psychology, 6 14–25.Google Scholar
  36. Yarrow, M., Scott, P., deLeeuw, L., & Heinig, C. (1962). Childrearing in families of working and nonworking mothers.Sociometry, 25 122–140.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan B. Crockenberg
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaDavis

Personalised recommendations