Advertisement

Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 224, Issue 3–4, pp 153–171 | Cite as

Molecular phylogeny of Old WorldTrifolium (Fabaceae), based on plastid and nuclear markers

  • L. E. Watson
  • H. Sayed-Ahmed
  • A. Badr
Article

Abstract

Phylogenies of Old WorldTrifolium species were constructed using nucleotide sequence data of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and chloroplast DNA restriction site data from PCR-amplified genes and genic regions (rbcL,trnK, andrpoC1–C2). Biogeography, morphological evolution, and the existing classification forTrifolium were examined. The genusTrifolium is strongly supported as monophyletic, however, only one small section (Chronosemium) is monophyletic, although the data are in conflict regarding its placement. The two largest sections of the genus, Sects.Lotoidea andTrifolium, are not supported as monophyletic, as currently circumscribed. Many members of Sect.Lotoidea are basal within the genus, supporting previously-proposed hypotheses concerning plesiomorphic morphological characters and a Mediterranean-Mideast biogeographic origin of the genus.

Key words

Trifolium Fabaceae ITS phylogeny rpo intron restriction sites clover 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Badr A. (1995) Electrophoretic studies of seed proteins in relation to chromosomal criteria and the relationships of some taxa ofTrifolium. Taxon 44: 183–191.Google Scholar
  2. Baldwin B. G., Sanderson M. J., Porter J. M., Wojciechowski M. F., Campbell C. S., Donoghue M. J. (1995) The ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA: a valuable source of evidence of angiosperm phylogeny. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 82: 247–277.Google Scholar
  3. Bobrov E. G. (1967) On the span of the genusTrifolium s.l. Bot. Zurn., S.S.R. 52: 1593–1599 (Russian with English summary).Google Scholar
  4. Boissier E. (1872)Trifolium. In: Flora Orientalis, 2. Geneva and Basel, pp. 110–156.Google Scholar
  5. Britten E. J. (1963) Chromosome numbers in the genusTrifolium. Cytologia 28: 428–449.Google Scholar
  6. Bullitta S., Hayward M. D. (1996) Application of RAPD markers to a study of species relationships in the genusTrifolium. In: Pickersgill B., Lock J. M. (eds.) Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 8: Legumes of Economic Importance. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 127–135.Google Scholar
  7. Celakovsky L. (1874) Über den Aufbau der GattungTrifolium Österr. Bot Z. 24: 37–45, 75–82.Google Scholar
  8. Dowling T. E., Moritz C., Palmer J. D. (1990) Nucleic acids II: Restriction site analysis. In: Hillis D. M., Moritz C., (eds.) Molecular Systematics. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, pp. 250–317.Google Scholar
  9. Downie S. R., Katz-Downie D. S., Rogers E. J., Zujewski H. L., Small E. (1998) Multiple independent losses of the plastidrpoC1 intron inMedicago (Fabaceae) as inferred from phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. Canad. J. Bot. 76: 791–803.Google Scholar
  10. Doyle J. J. (1995) DNA data and legume phylogeny: a progress report. In: Crisp M., Doyle J. J. (eds.) Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 7: Phylogeny. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 11–30.Google Scholar
  11. Doyle J. J., Doyle J. L. (1987) A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochem. Bull. 19: 11–15.Google Scholar
  12. El-Kholy M. A. (1990) Cytology of someTrifolium species. Ph.D. Thesis, unpubl. Al-Azhar University, Cairo.Google Scholar
  13. Farris J. S., Källersjo M., Kluge A. G., Bult C. (1995) Testing significance of congruence. Cladistics 10: 315–320.Google Scholar
  14. Felsenstein J. (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39: 783–791.Google Scholar
  15. Gillett J. M. (1952) The genusTrifolium in southern Arabia and in Africa south of the Sahara. Kew Bulletin, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 7: 367–404.Google Scholar
  16. Gillett J. M. (1985) Taxonomy and morphology. Clover Science and Technology, Agronomy Monograph 25: 7–69.Google Scholar
  17. Hendrych R. (1978) Ein Versuch, die Arealentwicklung der GattungChrysapsis zu erläutern. Preslia 50: 119–137.Google Scholar
  18. Heyn C. C. (1981) Trifolieae. In: Polhill R. M., Raven P. H. (eds.) Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 1: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 383–385.Google Scholar
  19. Higgins D. G., Bleasby A. J., Fuchs R. (1992) Clustal V: Improved software for multiple sequence alignment. Comp. Appl. Biosciences 8: 189–191.Google Scholar
  20. Hossain M. (1961) A revision ofTrifolium in the Nearer East. Notes from Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Aberdeen University Press 23: 387–481.Google Scholar
  21. Hu J.-M., Lavin M., Wojciechowski M., Sanderson M. (1999) Phylogenetic systematics of the tribe Millettieae (Leguminosae) based ontrnK/matK sequences and its implications for evolutionary patterns in Papilionoideae. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 418–430.Google Scholar
  22. Johnson L. A., Soltis D. E. (1994)matK DNA sequences and phylogenetic reconstruction in Saxifragaceaes. str. Syst. Bot. 19: 143–156.Google Scholar
  23. Koch C. (1835)Trifolium. In: Synopsis Florae Germanicae et Helvetica, Vol. 1. Wilmans, Francofurtis and Moenum, pp. 167–176.Google Scholar
  24. Kozuharov S. I., Petrova A. V., Markova T. A. (1975) In: Lîve A. (ed.) IOPB chromosome number reports XLVII. Taxon 24: 145–146.Google Scholar
  25. Lavin M., Doyle J. J., Palmer J. D. (1990) Evolutionary significance of the loss of the chloroplast-DNA inverted repeat in the Leguminosae. Evolution 44: 390–402.Google Scholar
  26. Liston A. (1992) Variation in the chloroplast genesrpoC1 andrpoC2 of the genusAstragalus (Fabaceae): evidence from restriction site mapping of a PCR-amplified fragment. Amer. J. Bot. 79: 953–961.Google Scholar
  27. Liston A., Wheeler J. A. (1994) The phylogenetic position of the genusAstragalus (Fabaceae): evidence from the chloroplast genesrpoC1 andrpoC2. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 22: 377–388.Google Scholar
  28. Milligan B. G. (1991) Chloroplast DNA diversity within and among populations ofTrifolium pratense. Curr. Genet. 19: 411–416.Google Scholar
  29. Milligan B. G., Hampton J. N., Palmer J. D. (1989) Dispersed repeats and structural reorganization in subclover chloroplast DNA. Mol. Biol. Evol. 6: 355–368.Google Scholar
  30. Norris D. O. (1956) Legumes and Rhizobium Symbiosis. Emp. J. Exp.Google Scholar
  31. Olmstead R. G., Palmer J. D. (1994) Chloroplast DNA systematics: a review of methods and data analysis. Amer. J. Bot. 81: 1205–1224.Google Scholar
  32. Polhill R. M. (1981) Papilionoideae. In: Polhill R. M., Raven P. H. (eds.) Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 1. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 191–208.Google Scholar
  33. Pritchard A. J. (1962) Number and morphology of chromosomes in African species in the genusTrifolium L. Australian J. Agric. Res. 13: 1023–1029.Google Scholar
  34. Raven P. H., Polhill R. M. (1981) Biogeography of the Leguminosae. In: Polhill R. M., Raven P.H. (eds.) Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 1. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 27–34.Google Scholar
  35. Rieseberg L. H., Hanson M. A., Philbrick C. T. (1992) Androdioecy is derived from dioecy in Datiscaceae: evidence from restriction site mapping of PCR-amplified chloroplast DNA fragments. Syst. Bot. 17: 324–336.Google Scholar
  36. Saghai-Maroof M. A., Soliman K. M., Jorgensen R. A., Allard R. W. (1984) Ribosomal DNA spacer length polymorphism in barley: Mendelian inheritance, chromosomal location and population dynamics. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 8014–8018.Google Scholar
  37. Sanderson M. J., Liston A. (1995) Molecular phylogenetic systematics of Galegeae, with special reference toAstragalus. In: Crisp M., Doyle J. J. (eds.) Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 7: Phylogeny. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 331–350.Google Scholar
  38. Sanderson M. J., Liston A., Wojciechowski M. F. (1996) Diversification rates in a temperate legume clade: are there “so many species” ofAstragalus (Fabaceae)? Amer. J. Bot. 83: 1488–1502.Google Scholar
  39. Sanger F., Nicklen S., Coulson A. R. (1977) DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 74: 5463–5467.Google Scholar
  40. Senn H. A. (1938) Chromosome number relation-ships in the Leguminosae. Biblio. Genetica 12: 175–336.Google Scholar
  41. Small E. (1989) The evolution of genera in the Leguminosae. In: Stirton C. H., Zarucchi J. L. (eds.) Advances in Legume Biology. Monographs in Systematic Botany, from the Missouri Botanical Garden 29: 467–486.Google Scholar
  42. Steele K. P., Udpa B., Chinn D., Curameng O., Throckmorton D., Wojciechowski M. F. (1999) [abstract] Phylogenetic relationships of Tribes Trifolieae and Viceae (Fabaceae). XVI International Botanical Congress, St. Louis, Missouri, USA p. 390.Google Scholar
  43. Steele K. P., Udpa B., Chinn D., Curameng O., Throckmorton D., Wojciechowski M. F., Watson L. E., Liston A., Sayed-Ahmed H., Downie S. R., Wojciechowski M. F. (1998) [abstract] Molecular systematics of the Trifolieae: phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences. XVTrifolium Conference, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.Google Scholar
  44. Steiner J. J., Robinson W. A, Liston A., Taylor N. L. (1997) ITS and RAPD phylogenetic hypotheses and the ecological distributions of North AmericanTrifolium L. (Fabaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 84 [Suppl.]: 235–236.Google Scholar
  45. Swofford D. L. (1993) PAUP: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony, Version 3.1.1. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  46. Swofford D. L. (1999) PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (* and Other Methods), Version 4. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland.Google Scholar
  47. Taylor N. L. (1985) Clovers around the world. Clover Science and Technology, Agronomy Monograph 25: 1–6.Google Scholar
  48. Wexelsen H. (1928) Chromosome numbers and morphology inTrifolium. University of California Publications in Agricultural Sciences 2: 355–376.Google Scholar
  49. White T. J., Birns T., Lee S., Taylor J. (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis M., Gelfand D., Sninsky J., White T. (eds.) PCR protocols: A guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 315–322.Google Scholar
  50. Winberg G., Hammarskjöld M.-L. (1980) Isolation of DNA from agarose gels using DEAE-paper. Application to restriction site mapping of adenovirus type 16 DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 8: 253–264.Google Scholar
  51. Wojciechowski M. F., Sanderson M. J., Baldwin B. G., Donoghue M. J. (1993) Monophyly of aneuploidAstragalus (Fabaceae): evidence from nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 80: 711–722.Google Scholar
  52. Wolfe A. D., Elisens W. J., Watson L. E., dePamphilis C. W. (1997) Using restriction site variation of PCR-amplified cpDNA genes for phylogenetic analysis of Tribe Cheloneae (Scrophulariaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 84: 555–564.Google Scholar
  53. Wolfe K. H. (1991) Protein-coding genes in chloroplast DNA: Compilation of nucleotide sequences, database entries and rates of molecular evolution. In: Bogorad L., Vasil I. K. (eds.) The photosynthetic apparatus: molecular biology and operation, Vol. 7B, Cell culture and somatic cell genetics in plants. Academic Press, New York, pp. 467–482.Google Scholar
  54. Yokota Y., Kawata T., Iida Y., Kato A., Tanifuji S. (1989) Nucleotide sequences of the 5.8S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer regions in carrot and broad bean ribosomal DNA. J. Mol. Evol. 29: 294–301.Google Scholar
  55. Zohary M. (1972) Origins and evolution in the genusTrifolium. Bot. Notiser. 125: 501–511.Google Scholar
  56. Zohary M., Heller D. (1984) The genusTrifolium. The Israel Academy of Science, Jerusalem.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. E. Watson
    • 1
  • H. Sayed-Ahmed
    • 2
  • A. Badr
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BotanyMiami UniversityOxfordUSA
  2. 2.Department of BotanyFaculty of Science, Tanta UniversityTantaEgypt

Personalised recommendations