Advertisement

Journal of Nonverbal Behavior

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 202–212 | Cite as

The effects of verbal statements of context on facial expressions of emotion

  • Harold R. Knudsen
  • Louis H. Muzekari
Article

Abstract

To determine the effect of combining verbal statements of context with facial expressions of emotions, 98 college students rated still photographs of emotion, shown alone and paired with congruent and incongruent descriptions of context. The results of the study indicate that agreement on the meaning of photographs of emotion can: (1) change significantly with the addition of congruent vs. incongruent statements of context, (2) be affected by sex of the stimulus person, though a definite pattern was not observed, and (3) vary across emotion categories. It is suggested that the message value inherent in social contexts be given careful consideration in future studies.

Keywords

Future Study College Student Social Psychology Facial Expression Social Context 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Argyle, M., Alkema, F., & Gilmore, R. The communication of friendly and hostile attitudes by verbal and nonverbal signals.European Journal of Social Psychology 1970,1 385–402.Google Scholar
  2. Bateson, G.Steps to an ecology of mind. New York: Ballantine Books, 1972.Google Scholar
  3. Birdwhistell, R.Kinesics and context. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  4. Brenner, C.An elementary textbook of psychoanalysis. New York: International Universities Press, 1955.Google Scholar
  5. Buck, R.W., Savin, V.J., Miller, R.E., & Caul, W.F. Communication of affect through facial expressions in humans.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1972,23 362–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bugental, D.E., Kaswan, J.W., & Love, L.R. Perception of contradictory meanings conveyed by verbal and nonverbal channels.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1970,16 647–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Drag, R.M., & Shaw, M.E. Factors influencing the communication of emotional intent by facial expressions.Psychonomic Science 1967,8 137–138.Google Scholar
  8. Dougherty, F.E., Bartlett, E.S., & Izard, C.E. Responses of schizophrenics to expressions of the fundamental emotions.Journal of Clinical Psychology 1974,30 243–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W.V.Unmasking the face. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1975.Google Scholar
  10. Ekman, P., Friesen, W.V., & Ellsworth, P.Emotion in the human face: guidelines for research and an integration of the findings. New York: Pergamon Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  11. Ekman, P., Friesen, W.V., O'Sullivan, M., & Scherer, K. Relative importance of face, body, and speech in judgments of personality and affect.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1980,38 270–277.Google Scholar
  12. Friedman, H.S. The relative strength of verbal versus nonverbal cues.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 1978,4 147–150.Google Scholar
  13. Gitter, A.G., Black, H., & Mostofsky, D. Race and sex in the communication of emotion.Journal of Social Psychology 1972,88 273–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hall, E.T.The silent language. New York: Anchor Books, 1959.Google Scholar
  15. Harper, R.G., Weins, A.N., & Matarazzo, J.D.Nonverbal communication: The state of the art. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1978.Google Scholar
  16. Izard, C.E.The face of emotion. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1971.Google Scholar
  17. Levitt, E.A. The relationship between abilities to express emotional meanings vocally and facially. In J.R. Davis (Ed.),The communication of emotional meaning. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, 87–100.Google Scholar
  18. McNemar, Q.Psychological statistics. New York: Wiley & Sons, 1955.Google Scholar
  19. Mehrabian, A.Nonverbal communication. New York: Aldine-Atherton, 1972.Google Scholar
  20. Muzekari, L.H., & Bates, M.E. Judgment of emotion among chronic schizophrenics.Journal of Clinical Psychology 1977,33 662–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Ruesch, J., & Bateson, G.Communication: The social matrix of society. New York: Norton Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  22. Scheflen, A.E.How behavior means. New York: Gordon & Breach, 1973.Google Scholar
  23. Spignesi, A., & Shor, R.E. The judgments of emotion from facial expressions context and their combination.Journal of General Psychology 1981,104 41–58.Google Scholar
  24. Walker, E., Marwit, S.J., & Emory, E. A cross-sectional study of emotion recognition in schizophrenics.Journal of Abnormal Psychology 1980,89 428–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Watzlawick, P., Beavin, J.H., & Jackson, D.D.Pragmatics of human communication. New York: Norton, 1967.Google Scholar
  26. Weitz, S. (Ed.).Nonverbal communication: Readings with commentary. New York: Oxford University Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  27. Zuckerman, M., Lipets, M.S., Koivumaki, J.H., & Rosenthal, R. Encoding and decoding non-verbak cues of emotion.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1975,32 1068–1076.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harold R. Knudsen
  • Louis H. Muzekari

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations