Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 192, Issue 1–2, pp 49–59 | Cite as

Genetic diversity in and phylogenetic relationships of the Brazilian endemic cotton,Gossypium mustelinum (Malvaceae)

  • Jonathan F. Wendel
  • Robb Rowley
  • James McD. Stewart
Article

Abstract

Gossypium mustelinum, one of five tetraploid species in the cotton genus, is geographically restricted to a few states in NE Brazil. Allozyme analysis was used to assess levels and patterns of genetic diversity inG. mustelinum and its relationship to the other tetraploid species. Genetic variation was low, with only 6 of 50 loci examined being polymorphic, a mean of 1.14 alleles per locus and a mean panmictic heterozygosity of 0.08. These estimates are low relative to other tetraploid cotton species, but are typical of island endemics. Interpopulational genetic identities were uniformly high, lending support to the concept of there being only one wild species of Brazilian cotton. The limited allelic diversity observed was correlated with geographical distribution, although variability is so limited in the species that geographically marginal populations are electrophoretically ordinary. Phylogenetic and phenetic analyses demonstrate thatG. mustelinum is isolated among polyploid cotton species, occupying one of the three basal clades resulting from an early radiation of polyploid taxa subsequent to polyploid formation. We suggest thatG. mustelinum represents a paleoendemic that presently exists as a series of widely scattered, relictual populations. Despite several centuries of sympatric cultivation ofG. barbadense andG. hirsutum, there was little evidence of interspecific introgression of alleles from cultivated cottons intoG. mustelinum.

Key words

Malvaceae Gossypium Allozymes genetic diversity cladistics phylogenetics endemism Flora of Brazil 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aranha, C., Leitão, H. F., Gridi-Papp, I. L., 1969: Uma nova espécie para o gêneroGossypium L. — Bragantia28: 273–290.Google Scholar
  2. Brubaker, C. L., Wendel, J. F., 1993: Molecular evidence bearing on the specific status ofGossypium lanceolatum Todaro. — Genet. Res. Crop Evol.40: 165–170.Google Scholar
  3. Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., Edwards, A. W. F., 1967: Phylogenetic analysis: models and estimation procedures. — Evolution21: 550–570.Google Scholar
  4. DeJoode, D. R., Wendel, J. F., 1992: Genetic diversity and origin of the Hawaiian Islands cotton,Gossypium tomentosum. — Amer. J. Bot.79: 1311–1319.Google Scholar
  5. Endrizzi, J. E., Turcotte, E. L., Kohel, R. J., 1985: Genetics, cytology, and evolution ofGossypium. — Adv. Genet.23: 271–375.Google Scholar
  6. Fryxell, P. A., 1976: A nomenclator ofGossypium: the botanical names of cotton. — US Dept Agric. Tech. Bull.1491: 1–114.Google Scholar
  7. —, 1979: The natural history of the cotton tribe. — College Station, TX: Texas A & M University Press.Google Scholar
  8. —, 1992: A revised taxonomic interpretation ofGossypium L. (Malvaceae). — Rheedea2: 108–165.Google Scholar
  9. —, 1992: A revision ofGossypium sect.Grandicalyx (Malvaceae), including the description of six new species. — Syst. Bot.17: 91–114.Google Scholar
  10. Hamrick, J. L., Godt, M. J. W., 1990: Allozyme diversity in plant species. — InBrown, A. H. D., Clegg, M. T., Kahler, A. L., Weir, B. S., (Eds): Plant population genetics, breeding and genetic resources, pp. 43–63. — Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.Google Scholar
  11. Hutchinson, J. B., Silow, R. A., Stephens, S. G., 1947: The evolution ofGossypium. — London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Kruckeberg, A. R., Rabinowitz, D., 1985: Biological aspects of endemism in higher plants. — Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst.16: 447–479.Google Scholar
  13. Nei, M., 1978: Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distance from a small number of individuals. — Genetics89: 583–590.Google Scholar
  14. Percival, A. E., 1987: The national collection ofGossypium germplasm. — Southern Coop. Ser. Bull. 321, College Station, TX.Google Scholar
  15. Percy, R. G., Wendel, J. F., 1990: Allozyme evidence for the origin and diversification ofGossypium barbadense L. — Theor. Appl. Genet.79: 529–542.Google Scholar
  16. Pickersgill, B., Barrett, S. C. H., de Andrade-Lima, D., 1975: Wild cotton in Northeast Brazil. — Biotropica7: 42–54.Google Scholar
  17. Roberty, G., 1950:Gossypiorum revisionis fentamen (fin). — Candollea13: 9–165.Google Scholar
  18. Rogers, J. S., 1972: Measures of genetic similarity and genetic distance. — Studies in genetics. Univ. Texas Publ.7213: 145–153.Google Scholar
  19. Stephens, S. G., 1967: Evolution under domestication of the New World cottons (Gossypium spp.). — Ciênc. Cult.19: 118–134.Google Scholar
  20. Swofford, D. L., 1990: Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony. — Urbana: Illinois Natural History Survey.Google Scholar
  21. Watt, G., 1907: The wild and cultivated cotton plants of the world. — London: Longmans, Green.Google Scholar
  22. Wendel, J. F., Albert, V. A., 1992: Phylogenetics of the cotton genus (Gossypium L.): character-state weighted parsimony analysis of chloroplast DNA restriction site data and its systematic and biogeographic implications. — Syst. Bot.17: 115–143.Google Scholar
  23. —, 1990: Allozyme diversity and introgression in the Galapagos endemicGossypium darwinii and its relationship to continentalG. barbadense. — Biochem. Syst. Ecol.18: 517–528.Google Scholar
  24. —, 1989: Visualization and interpretation of plant isozymes. — InSoltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., (Eds): Isozymes in plant biology, pp. 5–45. — Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press.Google Scholar
  25. —, 1992: Genetic diversity inGossypium hirsutum and the origin of Upland cotton. — Amer. J. Bot.79: 1291–1310.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan F. Wendel
    • 1
  • Robb Rowley
    • 1
  • James McD. Stewart
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BotanyIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  2. 2.Department of AgronomyUniversity of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA

Personalised recommendations