Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 223, Issue 1–2, pp 15–27 | Cite as

Molecular analyses suggest a need for a significant rearrangement of Rutaceae subfamilies and a minor reassessment of species relationships withinFlindersia

  • K. D. Scott
  • C. L. McIntyre
  • J. Playford


DNA sequencing has been used to construct two molecular phylogenies at the intrafamily and intrageneric level within the Rutaceae. Analysis oftrnL-trnF sequence data for five Rutaceae subfamilies has shown that there is no molecular support for the current subfamily classifications within the Rutaceae. The Dictyolomatoideae and Spathelioideae belong to a clade separate from the clades containing the remaining Rutaceae subfamilies. Rutoideae and Citroideae do not form discrete clades which suggests a reassessment of the subfamily classification is necessary, particularly asRuta falls within the majority Citroideae clade. Flindersioideae forms a clade within the Rutaceae and does not form a separate family or form a clade with Meliaceae.

Sequencing of 17Flindersia species produces a similar phylogeny to that proposed by other authors using morphological methods with two exceptions. The molecular phylogeny indicatesF. amboinensis is associated withF. fournieri andF. laevicarpa and, in addition,F. oppositifolia andF. pimenteliana were found to be genetically identical.

Key words

Rutaceae Rutoideae Citroideae Dictyolomatoideae Spathelioideae Flindersioideae Flindersia Molecular systematics phylogeny chloroplast trnL-trnF spacer ITS-1 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams C. D., Taylor D. R., Warner J. M. (1973) N-methylflindersine fromSpathelia sorbifolia. Phytochemistry 12: 1359–1360.Google Scholar
  2. Airy-Shaw H. L. (1965) Diagnosis of new families, new names, etc., for the seventh edition of Willis's ‘Dictionary’. Kew Bull. 18: 249–259.Google Scholar
  3. Bentham G., Hooker J. D. (1862) Genera Plantarum. Reeve, London.Google Scholar
  4. Bentham G., Mueller F. (1863) Meliaceae. Fl. Austr. 1: 378–390.Google Scholar
  5. Chase M. W., Soltis D. E., Olmstead R. G., Morgan D., Les D. H., Mishler B. D., Duvall M. R., Price R. A., Hills H. G., Qiu Y-L., Kron K. A., Rettig J. H., Conti E., Palmer J. D., Manhart J. R., Sytsma K. J., Michaels H. J., Kress W. J., Karol K. G., Clark W. D., Hedren M., Gaut B. S., Jansen R. K., Kim K-J., Wimpe C. F., Smith J. F., Furnier G. R., Strauss S. H., Xiang Q-Y., Plankett G. M., Soltis P. S., Swensen S. M., Williams S. E., Gadek P. A., Quinn C. J., Eguiarte L. E., Golenberg E., Learn G. H., Graham S. W., Barrett S. C. H., Dayanandan S., Albert V. A. (1993) Phylogenetics of seed plants: An analysis of nucleotide sequences from the plastid generbcL. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: 528–580.Google Scholar
  6. Cronquist A. (1968) The evolution and classification of flowering plants. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.Google Scholar
  7. Cronquist A. (1981) An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Dahlgren R. (1989) The last Dahlgrenogram system of classification of the dicotyledons. In: Kit Tan (ed.) The Davis and Hedge Festschrift: plant taxonomy, phytogeography and related subjects. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp. 249–260.Google Scholar
  9. Da Silva M. F., Gottlieb O. R., Ehrendorfer F. (1988) Chemosystematics of the Rutaceae: suggestions for a more natural taxonomy and evolutionary interpretation of the family. Plant Syst. Evol. 161: 97–134.Google Scholar
  10. Engler A., Prantl K. (eds.) 1896: Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. Leipzig, Engelmann, 3(4, 5) pp. 95–201.Google Scholar
  11. Engler A., 1931: Rutaceae In: Engler A., Prantl K., (eds.) Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. 2nd edn. — Leipzig, Engelmann. 19a, pp. 187–359.Google Scholar
  12. Gadek P. A., Fernando E. S., Quinn C. J., Hoot S. B., Terrazas T., Sheahan M. C., Chase M. W., (1996) Sapindales: Molecular delimitation and infraordinal groups. Amer. J. Bot. 83: 802–811.Google Scholar
  13. Gielly L., Taberlet P. (1994) Chloroplast DNA polymorphism at the intrageneric level and plant phylogenies. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sec. 3, Sci. Vie. 317: 685–692.Google Scholar
  14. Hartley T. G. (1969) A revision of the genusFlindersia (Rutaceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 50: 481–523.Google Scholar
  15. Hartley T. G., Hyland B. M. P. (1975) Additional notes on the genusFlindersia (Rutaceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 56: 243–247.Google Scholar
  16. Jeandroz S., Roy A., Bousquet J. (1997) Phylogeny and phylogeography of the circumpolar genusFraxinus (Oleaceae) based on Internal Transcribed Spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 7: 241–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kita Y., Ueda K., Kadota Y. (1995) Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the AsianAconitum subgenusAconitum (Ranunculaceae). J. Pl. Res. 108: 429–442.Google Scholar
  18. Metcalfe C. R., Chalk L. (1950) Anatomy of the dicotyledons. 1. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  19. Morton C. M., Chase M. W., Kallunki J. (1996) Evaluation of the six subfamilies of Rutaceae using evidence fromrbcL sequence variation. Amer. J. Bot. 83: 180–181.Google Scholar
  20. Quader A., Armstrong J. A., Gray A. I., Hartley T. G., Waterman P. G. (1991) Chemosystematics ofAcradenia and general significance of Acetophenones in the Rutaceae. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 19: 171–176.Google Scholar
  21. Scott K., Playford J. (1996) A DNA extraction technique for PCR in rainforest plant species. Biotechniques 20: 974–978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Scott K., Harris W. K., Playford J. (in press) The identity ofFlindersia pimenteliana andF. oppositifolia (Flindersiaceae): Evidence from DNA sequences. Austrobailya 6.Google Scholar
  23. Smith D. E., Klein A. S. (1994) Phylogenetic inferences on the relationship of North American and EuropeanPicea species based on nuclear ribosomal 18S sequences and the internal transcribed spacer 1 region. Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 3: 17–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Taberlet P., Gielly L., Pautou G., Bouvet J. (1991) Universal primers for amplification of three noncoding regions of chloroplast DNA. Pl. Molec. Biol. 17: 1105–1109.Google Scholar
  25. Takhtajan A. (1969) Flowering plants. Origin and dispersal. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  26. Thorne R. F. (1992) An updated phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants. Aliso 13: 365–389.Google Scholar
  27. Whiffin T. (1982) Variation and evolution in the genusFlindersia (Rutaceae). 1. Review of the genus. Austral. J. Bot. 30: 635–643.Google Scholar
  28. Yuan Y-M., Küpfer P., Doyle J. J. (1996) Infrageneric phylogeny of the genusGentiana (Gentianaceae) inferred from nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Amer. J. Bot. 83: 641–652.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. D. Scott
    • 1
  • C. L. McIntyre
    • 2
  • J. Playford
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Centre for Plant Conservation GeneticsLismore NSWAustralia
  2. 2.CSIRO Tropical AgricultureSt. LuciaAustralia
  3. 3.Botany DepartmentUniversity of QueenslandSt. LuciaAustralia
  4. 4.Cooperative Research Centre for Tropical Rainforest Ecology and ManagementAustralia

Personalised recommendations