Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 220, Issue 3–4, pp 223–239 | Cite as

Phylogeny of the tribe Antirrhineae (Scrophulariaceae) based on morphological andndhF sequence data

  • Medhanie Ghebrehiwet
  • Birgitta Bremer
  • Mats Thulin


Phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Antirrhineae (Scrophulariaceae) are analysed and discussed on the basis of parsimony analyses of morphological andndhF gene sequence data. The results indicate that the tribe Antirrhineae consists of four major groups of genera, theAnarrhinum clade, theGambelia clade, theMaurandya clade, and theAntirrhinum clade. TheAnarrhinum clade, consisting of the Old World bee-pollinated generaAnarrhinum andKickxia, is sister to the rest of the tribe. TheGambelia clade consists of the New World generaGambelia andGalvezia, which are very closely related and pollinated by hummingbirds. TheMaurandya clade consists of one subclade includingMaurandya and a number of related bee- or hummingbird-pollinated New World genera and another subclade with the Old World bee-pollinated generaAsarina andCymbalaria. TheAntirrhinum clade consists mainly of bee-pollinated Old World genera, such asAntirrhinum, Linaria, Chaenorhinum, and their segregates, but also includes the New World generaMohavea andHowelliella, of which the latter is known to be partly pollinated by hummingbirds. It is concluded that hummingbirdpollination has evolved independently within Antirrhineae at least three times from bee-pollinated ancestors.

Key words

Scrophulariaceae Antirrhineae morphology ndhphylogeny pollination 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Medhanie Ghebrehiwet
    • 1
  • Birgitta Bremer
    • 2
  • Mats Thulin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Systematic BotanyEvolutionary Biology CentreUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.Department of Systematic BotanyEvolutionary Biology CentreUppsalaSweden

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