Advertisement

Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 128, Issue 3–4, pp 277–286 | Cite as

Evolutionary implications of herbivory onVernonia (Compositae)

  • William C. BurnettJr.
  • Samuel B. JonesJr.
  • Tom J. Mabry
Article

Abstract

A field insect feeding experiment was conducted with two species ofVernonia which produce the sesquiterpene lactone glaucolide-A, one species which does not contain this bitter compound, and two F1 hybrid combinations. Also, naturalVernonia populations were observed over a two year period for their degree of herbivory. Contrary to the pattern observed in laboratory feeding preference tests,Vernonia flaccidifolia, the species lacking sesquiterpene lactones, was consistently fed upon less by insects than wereV. gigantea andV. glauca.

Even though glaucolide-A appears to adequately protect some Vernonias against herbivores, especially mammals,Vernonia flaccidifolia has lost this compound. ApparentlyV. flaccidifolia has evolved an alternative defensive mechanism which is more effective against insects but less effective against mammalian herbivores.

Key words

Compositae Vernonieae Vernonia Lepidoptera Insect resistance antifeedant sesquiterpene lactones glaucolide-A 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Begum, A., Eden, W. G., 1965: Influence of defoliation on yield and quality of soybeans. J. Econ. Ent.58, 591–592.Google Scholar
  2. Burnett, W. C., 1974: Sesquiterpene lactones—herbivore feeding deterrents inVernonia (Compositae). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Georgia.Google Scholar
  3. —, 1977a: Evolutionary implications of sesquiterpene lactones inVernonia (Compositae) and mammalian herbivores. Taxon26, 203–207.Google Scholar
  4. — - - 1977b: Sesquiterpene lactones ofVernonia—influence on oviposition preferences of Lepidoptera. Am. Midl. Nat. (in press).Google Scholar
  5. — - -Betkouski, M. F., 1977c: Sesquiterpene lactones ofVernonia—influence of glaucolide-A on growth rate and survival of lepidopterous larvae. Oecologia (submitted).Google Scholar
  6. —, 1977d: The role of sesquiterpene lactones in plant-animal coevolution. InHarbone, J. B. (Ed.): Biochemistry of Plant-Animal Coevolution. London-New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  7. —, 1974: Sesquiterpene lactones—insect feeding deterrents inVernonia. Biochem. Syst. Ecol.2, 25–29.Google Scholar
  8. Dethier, V. G., 1970: Chemical interactions between plants and animals. InSondheimer, E., andSimeone, J. B. (Ed.): Chemical Ecology, 83–102. London-New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  9. Ehrlich, P. R., Raven, P. H., 1964: Butterflies and plants: a study in coevolution. Evolution18, 586–608.Google Scholar
  10. Eisner, T., 1970: Chemical defense against predation in arthropods. InSondheimer, E., andSimeone, J. B. (Ed.): Chemical Ecology, 157–217. London-New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Fisher, R. A., Yates, F., 1963: Statistical Tables for Biological, Agricultural, and Medical Research, 6th ed. Hafner Publishing Co., Inc. 146 p.Google Scholar
  12. Gilbert, L. E., Raven, P. H. (Ed.), 1975: Coevolution of Animals and Plants. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  13. Govindachari, T. R., Joshi, B. S., Kamat, V. N., 1965: Structure of parthenolide. Tetrahedron21, 1509–1519.Google Scholar
  14. Henneberry, T. J., Kishaba, A. N., 1966: Cabbage loopers. InSmith, C. N. (Ed.): Insect Colonization and Mass Production, 461–478. London-New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  15. Herout, V., 1970: Chemotaxonomy of the familyCompositae (Asteraceae). InWagner, H., andHörhammer, L. (Ed.): Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 93–110. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  16. —, 1969: Chemotaxonomy of the sesquiterpenoids of the Compositae. InHarborne, J. B., andSwain, T. (Ed.): Perspectives in Phytochemistry, 139–165. London-New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  17. Holub, M., Popa, D. P., Herout, V., Sôrm, F., 1964: On terpenes. CLIX. Isolation of a guainaolide fromLaser trilobum L. Borkh. root. Colln. Czech. Commun. Engl. End.29, 938–942.Google Scholar
  18. Jaques, R. P., 1962: The transmission of nuclear-polyhedrosis virus in laboratory populations ofTrichoplusia ni (Hübner). J. Insect Path.4, 433–445.Google Scholar
  19. —, 1972: Control of the cabbage looper and the imported cabbage-worm by viruses and bacteria. J. Econ. Ent.65, 757–760.Google Scholar
  20. Jones, S. B., Faust, Z., 1977:Vernonieae. N. Amer. Flora. (in press).Google Scholar
  21. Kushner, D. J., Harvey, G. T., 1962: Antibacterial substances in leaves: their possible role in insect resistance to disease. J. Insect Path.4, 155–184.Google Scholar
  22. Mabry, T. J., Bohlmann, F., 1977: Summary of the chemistry of the Compositae. InHeywood, V., Harborne, J. B., andTurner, B. L. (Ed.): Chemistry and Biology of the Compositae. London-New York: Academic Press (in press).Google Scholar
  23. —, 1975: Systematic implications of flavonoids and sesquiterpene lactones in species ofVernonia. Biochem. Syst. Ecol.2, 185–192.Google Scholar
  24. McCahon, C. B., Kelsey, R. G., Sheridan, R. P., Shafizadeh, F., 1973: Physiological effects of compounds extracted from sagebrush. Bull. Torrey bot. Club.100, 23–28.Google Scholar
  25. Parr, J. C., Thurston, R., 1972: Toxicity of nicotine in synthetic diets to larvae of the tobacco hornworm. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am.65, 1185–1188.Google Scholar
  26. Peters, J. C., Boldt, P. E., DeLoach, C. J., 1973: Photometric and geometric estimates of leaf surface area of cabbage, mustard, and turnip plants as an aid to studying insect population dynamics. J. Econ. Ent.66, 104–107.Google Scholar
  27. Rodriguez, E., Towers, G. H. N., Mitchell, J. C., 1976: Biological activities of sesquiterpene lactones. Phytochemistry15, 1573–1580.Google Scholar
  28. Self, L. S., Guthrie, F. E., Hodgson, E., 1964: Adaptation of tobacco hornworms to the ingestion of nicotine. J. Insect Physiol.10, 907–914.Google Scholar
  29. Selman, C. L., Barton, H. E., 1972: Seasonal trends in catches of moths of twelve harmful species in blacklight traps in northeast Arkansas. J. Econ. Ent.65, 1018–1021.Google Scholar
  30. Stewart, P. A., Gentry, C. R., Knott, C. M., Lam, J. J., 1968: Seasonal trends in catches of moths of the tobacco hornworm, tomato hornworm, and corn earworm in traps equipped with blacklight lamps in North Carolina. J. Econ. Ent.61, 43–46.Google Scholar
  31. —, 1968: Catch of insects at different heights in traps equipped with blacklight lamps. J. Econ. Ent.61, 1227–1230.Google Scholar
  32. —, 1969: Hourly and seasonal collections of six harmful insects in traps equipped with blacklight lamps. J. Econ. Ent.62, 100–102.Google Scholar
  33. Stickler, F. C., Pauli, A. W., 1961: Leaf removal in grain sorghum. I. Effects of certain defoliation treatments on yield and components of yield. Agron. J.53, 99–102.Google Scholar
  34. Todd, J. W., Morgan, L. W., 1972: Effects of hand defoliation on yield and seed weight of soybeans. J. Econ. Ent.65, 567–570.Google Scholar
  35. Vail, P. V., Howland, A. F., Henneberry, T. J., 1968: Seasonal distribution, sex ratios, and mating of female noctuid moths in blacklight trapping studies. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am.61, 405–411.Google Scholar
  36. White, R. M., 1946: Preliminary observations on some effects of artificial defoliation of wheat plants. Sci. Agr.26, 225–229.Google Scholar
  37. Womack, D., Thurman, R. L., 1962: Effect of leaf removal on the grain yield of wheat and oats. Crop Sci.2, 423–426.Google Scholar
  38. Woolf, C. M., 1968: Principles of Biometry. Princeton: V. Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  39. Yoshioka, H., Mabry, T. J., Timmerman, B. N., 1973: The Sesquiterpene Lactones. Tokyo: The University of Tokyo Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • William C. BurnettJr.
    • 1
  • Samuel B. JonesJr.
    • 1
  • Tom J. Mabry
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of TexasAustinUSA

Personalised recommendations