Advertisement

Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 193, Issue 1–4, pp 53–68 | Cite as

Morphometric variation in theAlonsoa meridionalis complex (Scrophulariaceae)

  • Fanny Astholm
  • Yvonne Nyman
Article

Abstract

Morphological field studies of 27 populations of theA. meridionalis complex were conducted in Ecuador. It is possible to distinguish four different form series by the position of the stamens in relation to the style. This trait was congruent with the overall morphometric variation, shown by the results of a canonical discriminant analysis (CDA). The taxonomy of the species complex is discussed based upon the results of the CDA. The degree of outcrossing varied in different form series, from a comparatively high degree of selfing to predominantly outcrossing, as indicated by the variation within relative to among populations. This is probably due to the varying potentials for self-deposition owing to differences in the degree of herkogamy.

Key words

Scrophulariaceae Alonsoa Ecuador morphometric variation canonical discriminant analysis breeding system 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barringer, K., 1993: Five new tribes in theScrophulariaceae. — Novon3: 15–17.Google Scholar
  2. Buchmann, S. L., 1983: Buzz pollination in angiosperms. — InJones, C. C., Little, R. J., (Eds): Handbook of experimental pollination biology, pp. 73–113. — New York: Van Nostrand Rheinhold.Google Scholar
  3. Campbell, N. A., Atchley, W. R., 1981: The geometry of canonical variate analysis. — Syst. Zool.30: 268–280.Google Scholar
  4. Chmielewski, J. G., Chinnappa, C. C., Semple, J. C., 1990: The genusAntennaria (Asteraceae: Inuleae) in western North America: morphometric analysis ofAntennaria alborosea, A. corymbosa, A. marginata, A. microphylla, A. parviflora, A. rosea, andA. umbrinella. — Pl. Syst. Evol.169: 151–175.Google Scholar
  5. Cruden, R. W., 1977: Pollen-ovule ratios: a conservative indicator of breeding system in flowering plants. — Evolution31: 32–46.Google Scholar
  6. Diels, L., 1937: Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Vegetation und Flora von Ecuador. — Biblioth. Bot.29: 139–140.Google Scholar
  7. Edwin, G., 1967: Preliminary notes on theScrophulariaceae of Peru. — Fieldiana, Bot.31: 225–231.Google Scholar
  8. , 1971: Flora of Peru.Scrophulariaceae. — Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser.13: 461–717.Google Scholar
  9. Eriksen, B., Molau, U., Svensson, M., 1993: Reproductive strategies in two arcticPedicularis species (Scrophulariaceae). — Ecography16: 154–166.Google Scholar
  10. Grant, V., 1981: Plant speciation. — New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Gori, D. F., 1983: Post-pollination phenomena and adaptive floral changes. — InJones, C. C., Little, R. J., (Eds): Handbook of experimental pollination biology, pp. 31–49. — New York: Van Nostrand Rheinhold.Google Scholar
  12. Hamrick, J. L., 1989: Isozymes and the analysis of genetic structure in plant populations. — InSoltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., (Eds): Isozymes in plant biology, pp. 87–105. — Portland, Oregon: Dioscorides Press.Google Scholar
  13. Holmgren, N., Molau, U., 1984: 177.Scrophulariaceae. — InHarling, G., Sparre, B., (Eds): Flora of Ecuador.21: 1–189. — Arlöv: Berlings.Google Scholar
  14. Jain, S. K., Rai, K. N., 1974: Population biology ofAvena. IV. Polymorphism in small populations ofAvena fatua. — Theor. Appl. Gen.44: 7–11.Google Scholar
  15. Levin, D. A., 1978: The origin of isolating mechanisms in flowering plants. — Evol. Biol.11: 185–317.Google Scholar
  16. , 1986: Breeding structure and genetic variation. — InCrawley, M. J., (Ed.): Plant ecology, pp. 217–251. — Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.Google Scholar
  17. Livezey, B. C., Humphrey, P. S., 1986: Flightlessness in steamer-ducks (Anatidae: Tachyeres): its morphological bases and probable evolution. — Evolution40: 540–558.Google Scholar
  18. Lopez Guillen, J. E., 1971: El géneroAlonsoa en el Perú. — Raymondiana3: 156–246.Google Scholar
  19. Molau, U., 1990: The genusBartsia (Scrophulariaceae-Rhinanthoideae). — Opera Botanica102: 1–98.Google Scholar
  20. Nei, M., 1972: Genetic distance between populations. — Amer. Naturalist106: 283–292.Google Scholar
  21. Pianka, E. R., 1970: On r- and K-selection. — Amer. Naturalist104: 592–597.Google Scholar
  22. Prance, G. T., 1982: A review of the phytogeographic evidence for Pleistocene climate changes in the Neotropics. — Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard.69: 594–624.Google Scholar
  23. Prentice, H. C., White, R. J., 1988: Variability, population size, and isolation: the structuring of diversity in ÖlandGypsophila fastigiata. — Acta Oecol. (Oecol. Plant.)9: 19–29.Google Scholar
  24. Rick, C. M., Holle, M., Thorp, R. W., 1978: Rates of cross-pollination inLycopersicon pimpinellifolium: impact of genetic variation in floral characters. — Pl. Syst. Evol.129: 31–44.Google Scholar
  25. Ritland, C., Ritland, K., 1989: Variation of sex allocation among eight taxa of theMimulus guttatus species complex (Scrophulariaceae). — Amer. J. Bot.76: 1731–1739.Google Scholar
  26. SAS, 1986: SAS user's guide. — Cary, N. C.: SAS Institute Inc.Google Scholar
  27. Selin, E., Prentice, H. C., 1986: Morphometric analysis of disjunctPapaver radicatum (Papaveraceae) populations in southern Norway. — Pl. Syst. Evol.159: 237–247.Google Scholar
  28. Sokal, R. R., Rohlf, F. J., 1981: Biometry. The principles and practice of statistics in biological research, pp. 208–263. 2nd edn. — New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  29. Steiner, K. E., 1989: A second species of the amphi-atlantic genusAlonsoa (Scrophulariaceae) in South Africa. — Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard.76: 1152–1159.Google Scholar
  30. Webb, C. J., Lloyd, D. G., 1986: The avoidance of interference between the presentation of pollen and stigmas in angiosperms II. Herkogamy. — New Zealand J. Bot.24: 163–178.Google Scholar
  31. Webster, R., 1979: Quantitative and numerical methods in soil classification and survey. — Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  32. Wyatt, R., 1984a: The evolution of self-pollination in granite outcrop species ofArenaria (Caryophyllaceae). I. Morphological correlates. — Evolution38: 804–816.Google Scholar
  33. , 1984b: The evolution of self-pollination in granite outcrop species ofArenaria (Caryophyllaceae). IV. Correlated changes in the gynoecium. — Amer. J. Bot.71: 1006–1014.Google Scholar
  34. Zopfi, H.-J., 1993: Ecotypic variation inRhinanthus alectorolophus (Scopoli)Pollich (Scrophulariaceae) in relation to grassland management. I. Morphological delimitations and habitats of seasonal ecotypes. — Flora188: 15–39.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fanny Astholm
    • 1
  • Yvonne Nyman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Systematic BotanyUniversity of GöteborgGöteborgSweden

Personalised recommendations