Journal of World Prehistory

, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 307–358 | Cite as

The Woodland and Mississippian traditions in the prehistory of Midwestern North America

  • Richard W. Yerkes
Article

Abstract

Cultural developments in Midwestern North America between 5000 and 400 B.P. are reviewed and related to two overlapping, but contrasting, cultural traditions: Woodland and Mississippian. Significant changes in prehistoric subsistence systems, settlement patterns, and sociopolitical organization are reviewed within a three-division framework, beginning with a Transitional period (5000–2000 B.P.) when Late Archaic and Early Woodland societies “settled into” different regions, constructed regional markers (cemeteries, mounds, earthworks), and established economic and social relations with both neighboring and more distant groups. This was followed by the Middle Woodland period (2000–1500 B.P.) that is associated with the Hopewell “climax” of long-distance exchange of exotic materials, mound building, and ceremonial activities, although all Middle Woodland groups did not participate in this “Hopewell interaction sphere.” In the Late Prehistoric period (1500–400 B.P.), the Woodland tradition persisted in some areas, while the Mississippian tradition developed from local Late Woodland societies elsewhere. Finally, the patterns of interaction between the two traditions are discussed.

Key words

Prehistoric Woodland Indians culture change origin of agriculture (New World) Midwestern archaeology Woodland tradition Mississippian tradition 

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard W. Yerkes
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyThe Ohio State University, Columbus

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