Neurochemical Research

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 623–629 | Cite as

Rates of protein synthesis in the regenerating hypoglossal nucleus: Effects of testosterone treatment

  • Carolyn Beebe Smith
  • Wan-hua Amy Yu
Original Articles


Rates of protein synthesis (lCPSleu) along the entire rostral to caudal extent of the hypoglossal nucleus were determined in adult, female rats with the quantitative autoradiographicl-[1-14C]leucine method two and five weeks after unilateral hypoglossal axotomy with and without chronic treatment with testosterone. Rates of protein synthesis were increased on the axotomized side, and the increases were greater in the rostral portion of the nucleus at both time points examined. The effects of axotomy on lCPSleu were less at five weeks post-axotomy than at two weeks. In spite of the fact that testosterone has been shown to accelerate both the rate of outgrowth of regenerating cranial motor nerves (Kujawa et al., J. Neurosci. 11∶3898–3906, 1991) and the recovery of function (Kujawa et al., Exp. Neurol. 105∶80–85, 1989) and to attenuate the loss of neurons (Yu et al., Exp. Neurol. 80∶349–360, 1983) there were no effects of testosterone on 1CPSleu in the hypoglossal nucleus in either sham-operated or axotomized rats.

Key Words

Regeneration axotomy motoneurons androgens leucine 

Abbreviations Used


The local cerebral rate of protein synthesis


the rate of leucine incorporation into protein is abbreviated as lCPSleu


is the fraction of leucine in the precursor pool for protein synthesis derived from the arterial plasma in tissue region


is testosterone propionate


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Armstrong, D. M., Brady, R., Hersh, L. B., Hayes, R. C., and Wiley, R. G. 1991. Expression of choline acetyltransferase and nerve growth factor receptor within hypoglossal motoneurons following nerve injury. J. Comp. Neurol. 304:596–607.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arnold, A. P., and Gorski, R. A. 1984. Gonadal steroid induction of structural sex differences in the central nervous system. Ann. Rev. Neurosci. 7:413–442.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Breedlove, S. M. 1992. Sexual dimorphism in the vertebrate nervous system. J. Neurosci. 12:4133–4142.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Breedlove, S. M., and Arnold, A. P. 1983. Hormonal control of a developing neuromuscular system. I. Complete demasculinization of the male rat spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus using the antiandrogen flutamide. J. Neurosci. 3:417–423.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Breedlove, S. M., and Arnold, A. P. 1983. Hormonal control of a developing neuromuscular system. II. Sensitive periods for the androgen-induced masculinization of the rat spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus. J. Neurosci. 3:424–432.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cheah, T. B., and Geffen, L. B. 1973. Effects of axonal injury on norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase and monoamine oxidase levels in sympathetic ganglia. J. Neurobiol. 4:443–452.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goldstein, L. A., Kurz, E. M., and Sengelaub, D. R. 1990. Androgen regulation of dentritic growth and retraction in the development of a sexually dimorphic spinal nucleus. J. Neurosci. 10:935–946.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gorski, R. A., Gordon, J. H., Shryne, J. E., and Southam, A. M. 1978. Evidence for a morphological sex difference within the medial preoptic area of the rat brain. Brain Res. 148:333–346.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gould, E., Woolley, C. S., Frankfurt, M., and McEwen, B. S. 1990. Gonadal steroids regulate dendritic spine density in hippocampal pyramidal cells in adulthood. J. Neurosci. 10:1286–1291.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hall, M. E., Wilson, D. L., and Stone, G. C. 1978. Changes in synthesis of specific proteins following axotomy: Detection with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. J. Neurobiol. 9:353–366.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Heacock, A. M., and Agranoff, B. W. 1976. Enhanced labeling of a retinal protein during regeneration of optic nerve in goldfish. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73:828–832.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jones, K. J., and Oblonger, M. M. 1992. Testosterone effects on tubulin gene expression in regenerating hamster facial motor neurons. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 18:427.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kinderman, N. B., and Jones, K. J. 1993. Testosterone enhancement of the nerve cell body response to injury: evidence using in situ hybridization and ribosomal DNA probes. J. Neurosci. 13:1523–1532.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Konishi, M., and Akutagawa, E. 1981. Androgen increases protein synthesis within the avian brain vocal control system. Brain Res. 222:442–446.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Konishi, M., and Akutagawa, E. 1990. Growth and atrophy of neurons labeled at their birth in a song nucleus of the zebra finch. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 87:3538–3541.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kujawa, K. A., Emeric, E., and Jones, K. J. 1991. Testosterone differentially regulates the regenerative properties of injured hamster facial motoneurons. J. Neurosci. 11:3898–3906.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kujawa, K. A., Kinderman, N. B., and Jones, K. J. 1989. Testosterone-induced acceleration of recovery from facial paralysis following crush axotomy of the facial nerve in male hamsters. Exp. Neurol. 105:80–85.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kurz, E. M., Sengelaub, D. R., and Arnold, A. P. 1986. Androgens regulate the dendritic length of mammalian motoneurons in adulthood. Science 232:395–398.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nordeen, E. J., Nordeen, K. W., Sengelaub, D. R., and Arnold, A. P. 1985. Androgens prevent normally occurring cell death in a sexually dimorphic nucleus spinal nucleus. Science 229:671–673.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rotter, A., Birdsall, N. J. M., Burgen, A. S. V., Field, P. M., and Raisman, G. 1977. Axotomy causes loss of muscarinic receptors and loss of synaptic contacts in the hypoglossal nucleus. Nature 266:734–735.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Simerly, R. B., Chang, C., Muramatsu, M., and Swanson, L. W. 1990. Distribution of androgen and estrogen receptor mRNA-containing cells in the rat brain: an in situ hibridization study. J. Comp. Neurol. 294:76–95.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Smith, C. B., Crane, A. M., Kadekaro, M., Agranoff, B., and Sokoloff, L. 1984. Stimulation of protein synthesis and glucose utilization in the hypoglossal nucleus induced by axotomy. J. Neurosci. 4:2489–2496.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Smith, C. B., Davidsen, L., Deibler, G., Patlak, C., Pettigrew, K., and Sokoloff, L. 1980. A method for the determination of local rates of protein synthesis in brain. Trans. Am. Soc. Neurochem. 11:94.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Smith, C. Beebe, Deibler, G. E., Eng, N., Schmidt, K., and Sokoloff, L. 1988. Measurement of local cerebral protein synthesis in vivo: Influence of recycling of amino acids derived from protein degradation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 85:9341–9345.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sokoloff, L., Reivich, M., Kennedy, C., DesRosiers, M. H., Patlak, C. S., Pettigrew, K. D., Sakurada, O., and Shinohara, M. 1977. The [14C]deoxyglucose method for the measurement of local cerebral glucose utilization: Theory, procedure, and normal values in the conscious and anesthetized albino rat. J. Neurochem. 28:897–916.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sun, Y., Deibler, G. E., and Smith, C. Beebe. 1993. Effects of axotomy on protein synthesis in the rat hypoglossal nucleus: Examination of the influence of local recycling of leucine derived from protein degradation into the precursor pool. J. Cerebr. Metab. & Blood Flow 13:1006–1012.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sun, Y., Sokoloff, L., and Smith, C. Beebe 1991. Effects of axotomy on protein synthesis and degradation in the rat hypoglossal nucleus. Soc. for Neurosci. Abstracts 17:48.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tetzlaff, W., Bisby, M. A., and Kreutzberg, G. W. 1988. Changes in cytoskeletal proteins in the rat facial nucleus following axotomy. J. Neurosci. 8:3181–3189.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yu, W. H. A. 1988. Sex differences in neuronal loss induced by axotomy in the rat brain stem motor nuclei. Exp. Neurol. 102:230–235.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yu, W.-H. A. 1989. Administration of testosterone attenuates neuronal loss following axotomy in the brain-stem motor nuclei of female rats. J. Neurosci. 9:3908–3914.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yu, W.-H. A., and McGinnis, M. Y. 1986. Androgen receptor levels in cranial nerve nuclei and tongue muscles in rats. J. Neurosci. 6:1302–1307.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yu, W.-H. A., and Yu, M. C. 1983. Acceleration of the regeneration of the crushed hypoglossal nerve by testosterone. Exp. Neurol. 80:349–360.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Watson, W. E. 1966. Quantitative observations upon acetylcholine hydrolase activity of nerve cells after axotomy. J. Neurochem. 13:1549–1550.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carolyn Beebe Smith
    • 1
  • Wan-hua Amy Yu
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Cerebral MetabolismNational Institute of Mental Health, U.S. Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human ServicesBethesda
  2. 2.Department of Cell Biology and Anatomical SciencesCity University of New York Medical SchoolNew York

Personalised recommendations