Advertisement

Neurochemical Research

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 145–150 | Cite as

Changes in free amino acid concentrations in serum, brain, and CSF throughout embryogenesis

  • G. Huether
  • A. Lajtha
Original Articles

Abstract

Using the developing chick embryo as a model and a very sensitive micromethod for amino acid analysis, a complete analysis is presented of the developmental changes in free amino acid concentration in the blood, in the CSF, and in two different brain regions (optic lobe and frontal lobe) of the chick embryo (from day 4 of incubation, until day 5 post hatching). The developmental profile of Lys is the only one that is almost identical in all three compartments. The developmental profiles of the serum and of the brain are very similar for Arg and Phe, less so for Leu and Gly, and towards the end of the embryonic period, similar also for Val, Ile, Trp, and Met. The amino acid concentrations in the CSF are either much lower than in serum and brain already at the earliest stages, or they progressively decline to levels lower than those in brain and serum, most rapidly between day 6 and 8 of embryonic life. The concentrations of neuroactive amino acids (Gln, Glu, Asp, GABA, Tau, and Gly) in both brain regions begin to increase very early, and continue to rise, except Tau, which goes through a maximum at day 8. Comparative analysis of the developmental profiles of each amino acid in serum, brain, and CSF reveals that the blood supply and the cellular uptake, retention, and metabolism by neural cells are the major determinants of the free amino acid pool of the developing brain.

Key Words

Amino acids serum CSF brain embryo development 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Himwich, W. A., and Davis, J. M. 1973. Amino acids and protein in developing mammalian brain.in Himich, W.A. (ed.), Biochemistry of the Developing Brain, Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lajtha, A., and Piccoli, F. 1971. Alterations related to the cerebral free amino acid pool during development. Pages 551–629,in Pease, D.C. (ed.) Cellular Aspects of Neural Growth and Differentiation, Vol. 14, Calif. Press, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Huether, G. 1987. Regulation of the free amino acid pool of the developing brain. Pages 107–122,in Kaufmann, S. (ed.), Amino Acids in Health and Disease: New Perspectives, Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lajtha, A., Sershen, H., and Dunlop, D. 1988. Developmental changes in cerebral amino acids and protein metabolism. Pages 393–402,in Huether, G. (ed.), Amino Acid Availability and Brain Function in Health and Disease, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Himwich, W. A., and Agrawal, H. C. 1969. Amino acids. Pages 33–52, in Lajtha, A. (ed.), Handbook of Neurochemistry, Vol. 1, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Battistin, L., and Lajtha, A. 1979. Regional distribution and movement of amino acids in the brain. J. Neurol. Sci. 10:313–322.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Banay-Schwartz, M., Lajtha, A., and Palkovits, M. 1989. Changes with aging in the levels of amino acids in rat CNS structural elements II. Taurine and small neutral amino acids. Neurochem. Res. 14:563–570.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Banay-Schwartz, M., Lajtha, A., and Palkovits, M. 1989. Changes with aging in the levels of amino acids in rat CNS structural elements. I. Glutamate and related amino acids. Neurochem. Res. 14:555–562.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Neuhoff, V. 1982. Selected micromethods for use in neurochemistry. Pages 349–396,in Lajtha, A. (ed.), Handbook of Neurochemistry, Vol. 2, 2nd ed., Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lajtha, A., and Toth, J. 1973. Perinatal changes in the free amino acid pool of the brain in mice. Brain Res. 55:238–241.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wright, C. E., and Gaull, G. E. 1988. Role of taurine in brain development and vision. Pages 457–464,in Huether, G. (ed.), Amino Acid Availability and Brain Function in Health and Disease, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Balazs, R., Jorgensen, O. S., Mack, N., Gallo, V., Kingsbury, A., and Cotman, C. 1988. Role of excitatory amino acids in the development of cerebellar granule neurons. Pages 441–448,in Huether, G. (ed.), Amino Acid Availability and Brain Function in Health and Disease, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schousboe, A., Belhage, B., Meier, E., Hammerschlag, R., and Hansen, G. H. 1988. Gamma-aminobutyric acid as a neurotrophic agent. Pages 449–456,in Huether, G. (ed.), Amino Acid Availability and Brain Function in Health and Disease, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Huether
    • 1
  • A. Lajtha
    • 2
  1. 1.Neurochemische Forschungsgruppe der Psychiatrischen Klinik der Universitat GottingenGottingenGermany
  2. 2.Center for NeurochemistryThe Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric ResearchOrangeburg

Personalised recommendations