Neurochemical Research

, Volume 16, Issue 8, pp 843–847 | Cite as

Brief fasting decreases protein synthesis in the brain of adult rats

  • Y. Cherel
  • D. Attaix
  • D. Rosolowska-Huszcz
  • M. Arnal
  • Y. Le Maho
Original Articles

Abstract

The influence of starvation on protein synthesis in the adult rat brain was studied in vivo by an intravenous injection of a flooding dose of unlabeled valine including a tracer dose ofL-[3,4(n)-3H]valine. Brief starvation (24 hours) induced a 20% decline in fractional and absolute rates of brain protein synthesis. This decline resulted from a 20% decrease in the efficiency of protein synthesis (μg protein synthesized per day per μg RNA) whereas the capacity for protein synthesis (μg RNA per mg protein) was maintained. Prolonged starvation (5 days) was marked by no further significant changes in the fractional rate, absolute rate and efficiency of protein synthesis, whereas the capacity for protein synthesis cecreased slightly. The relative contribution of brain to wholebody body protein synthesis increased during fasting, and neither the protein nor the RNA brain content did change during the experiment. These results clearly indicate that brain proteins are spared in response to brief and prolonged food deprivation, and that brain protein synthesis is very sensitive to short-term fasting.

Key Words

Starvation protein turnover large dose method valine RNA 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Lajtha, A., Banay-Schwartz, M., and Giuffrida Stella, A. M. 1987. Changes in brain protein metabolism with developmental and nutritional state. Pages 43–56,in Rassin, D. K., Haber, B., and Drujan, B. (eds.), Basic and Clinical Aspects of Nutrition and Brain Development, Current Topics in Nutrition and Disease, Volume 16, Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Howard, E., and Bujnovszky, P. 1965. Effects of corticosterone and food restriction on growth and on DNA, RNA and cholesterol contents of the brain and liver in infant mice. J. Neurochem. 12:181–191.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Griffin, W. S. T., Woodward, D. J., and Chanda, R. 1977. Malnutrition and brain development: cerebellar weight, DNA, RNA, protein and histological correlations. J. Neurochem. 28:1269–1279.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Freedman, L. S., Samuels, S., Fish, I., Schwartz, S. A., Lange, B., Katz, M., and Morgano, L. 1980. Sparing of the brain in neonatal undernutrition: amino acid transport and incorporation into brain and muscle. Science 207:902–904.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Banay-Schwartz, M., Giuffrida, A. M., De Guzman, T., Sershen, H., and Lajtha, A. 1979. Effect of undernutrition on cerebral protein metabolism. Exp. Neurol. 65:157–168.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Addis, T., Poo, L. J., and Lew, W. 1936. The quantities of protein lost by the various organs and tissues of the body during a fast. J. Biol. Chem. 115:111–116.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chatamra, K., Daniel, P. M., and Lam, D. K. C. 1984. The effects of fasting on core temperature, blood glucose and body and organ weights in rats. Quart. J. Exp. Physiol. 69:541–545.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goodman, M. N., Lowell, B., Belur, E., and Ruderman, N. B. 1984. Sites of protein conservation and loss during starvation: influence of adiposity. Am. J. Physiol. 246 (Endocrinol. Metab. 9):E383-E390.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ma, S. W. Y., and Foster, D. O. 1986. Starvation-induced changes in metabolic rate, blood flow, and regional energy expenditure in rats. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 64:1252–1258.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Garlick, P. J., Millward, D. J., James, W. P. T., and Waterlow, J. C. 1975. The effect of protein deprivation and starvation on the rate of protein synthesis in tissues of the rat. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 414:71–84.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Preedy, V. R., Smith, D. M., and Sugden, P. H. 1985. The effects of 6 hours of hypoxia on protein synthesis in rat tissues in vivo and in vitro. Biochem. J. 228:179–185.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Preedy, V. R., Paska, L., Sugden, P. H., Schofield, P. S., and Sugden, M. C. 1988. The effects of surgical stress and short-term fasting on protein synthesis in vivo in diverse tissues of the mature rat. Biochem. J. 250:179–188.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Garlick, P. J. 1980. Protein turnover in the whole animal and specific tissues. Pages 77–152,in Florkin, M., Neuberger, A., and Van Deenen, L. L. M. (eds.), Comprehensive Biochemistry, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dunlop, D. S., Van Elden, W., and Lajtha, A. 1975. A method for measuring brain protein synthesis rates in young and adult rats. J. Neurochem. 24:337–344.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goodman, M. N., Larsen, P. R., Kaplan, M. M., Aoki, T. T., Young, V. R., and Ruderman, N. B. 1980. Starvation in the rat. II. Effect of age and obesity on protein sparing and fuel metabolism. Am. J. Physiol. 239 (Endocrinol. Metab. 2):E277-E286.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cherel, Y., Burnol, A.-F., Leturque, A., and Le Maho, Y. 1988. In vivo glucose utilization in rat tissues during the three phases of starvation. Metabolism 37:1033–1039.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Attaix, D., Manghebati, A., Grizard, J., and Arnal, M. 1986. Assessment of in vivo protein synthesis in lamb tissues with [3H]valine flooding doses. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 882:389–397.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Obled, C., Barre, F., Millward, D. J., and Arnal, M. 1989. Whole body protein synthesis: studies with different amino acids in the rat. Am. J. Physiol. 257 (Endocrinol. Metab. 20):E639-E649.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Garlick, P. J., McNurlan, M. A., and Preedy, V. R. 1980. A rapid and convenient technique for measuring the rate of protein synthesis in tissues by injection of [3H]phenylalanine. Biochem. J. 192:719–723.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dunlop, D., Lajtha, A., and Toth, J. 1977. Measuring brain protein metabolism in young and adult rats. Pages 79–96,in Roberts, S., Lajtha, A., and Gispen, W. H. (eds.), Mechanisms, Regulation and Special Functions of Protein Synthesis in the Brain, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Munro, H. N., and Fleck, A. 1969. Analysis of tissues and body fluids for nitrogenous constituents. Pages 423–525,in Munro, H. N. (ed.), Mammalian Protein Metabolism, Volume 3, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Snedecor, G. W., and Cochran, W. G. 1971. Méthodes Statis tiques. Acta, Montreal.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Goldspink, D. F. 1988. Protein turnover and growth of the rat brain from the foetus to old age. J. Neurochem. 50:1364–1368.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Reith, M. E. A., Schotman, P., and Gispen, W. H. 1978. Measurements of in vivo rates of protein synthesis in brain, spinal cord, heart and liver of young versus adult rats, intact versus hypophysectomized rats. J. Neurochem. 30:587–594.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shahbazian, F. M., Jacobs, M., and Lajtha, A. 1987. Rates of protein synthesis in brain and other organs. Int. J. Devl. Neurosci. 5:39–42.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Miller, M., Leahy, J. P., McConville, F., Morgane, P. I., and Resnick, O. 1977. Phenylalanine utilization in brain and peripheral tissues during development in normal and protein malnourished rats. Brain Res. Bull. 2:189–195.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goldspink, D. F., and Kelly, F. J. 1984. Protein turnover and growth in the whole body, liver and kidney of the rat from the foetus to senility. Biochem. J. 217:507–516.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kimball, S. R., and Jefferson, L. S. 1988. Cellular mechanisms involved in the action of insulin on protein synthesis. Diabetes Metab. Rev. 4:773–787.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lajtha, A., and Dunlop, D. 1981. Turnover of protein in the nervous system. Life Sci. 29:755–767.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Goodman, M. N., McElaney, M. A., and Ruderman, N. B. 1981. Adaptation to prolonged starvation in the rat: curtailment of skeletal muscle proteolysis. Am. J. Physiol. 241 (Endocrinol. Metab. 4):E321-E327.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. Cherel
    • 1
  • D. Attaix
    • 2
  • D. Rosolowska-Huszcz
    • 2
  • M. Arnal
    • 2
  • Y. Le Maho
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire d'Etude des Régulations Physiologiques, associé à l'Université PasteurCentre National de la Recherche ScientifiqueStrasbourgFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire d'Etude du Métabolisme AzotéInstitut National de la Recherche AgronomiqueCeyratFrance

Personalised recommendations