Skip to main content
Log in

Hormonal regulation of ripening in the strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit

  • Published:
Planta Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Anthocyanin accumulation is one measure of ripening in the strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.), a non-climacteric fruit. Neither aminoethoxyvinylglycine, an inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase, nor inhibitors of ethylene action (silver, norbornadiene) affected anthocyanin accumulation in ripening fruit. When the achenes were removed from one half of an unripe fruit there was an accelerated accumulation of anthocyanin and induction of phenylalanine ammonia lyase on the de-achened portion of the ripening fruit. These effects of achene removal could be prevented by the application of the synthetic auxins 1-naphthaleneacetic acid or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid to the de-achened surface. The introduction of 1-naphthalene acetic acid into intact unripe strawberry fruit through the peduncle delayed their subsequent ripening, as measured by the accumulation of anthocyanin, loss of chlorophyll and decrease in firmness. These findings suggest that the decline in the concentration of auxin in the achenes as strawberry fruit mature modulates the rate of fruit ripening.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others



1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid




1-naphthaleneacetic acid


phenylalanine ammonia-lyase


phenoxyacetic acid


2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid


  • Archbold, D.D., Dennis, F.G., Jr. (1984) Quantification of free ABA and free and conjugated IAA in strawberry achene and receptacle tissue during fruit development. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci.109, 330–335

    Google Scholar 

  • Beyer, E.M., Jr. (1976) A potent inhibitor of ethylene action in plants. Plant Physiol.58, 268–271

    Google Scholar 

  • Dreher, T.W., Poovaiah, B.W. (1982) Changes in auxin content during development in strawberry fruits. J. Plant Growth Regul.1, 267–276

    Google Scholar 

  • Given, N.K., Venis, M.A., Grierson, D. (1988a) Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and anthocyanin synthesis in ripening strawberry fruit. J. Plant Physiol, in press

  • Given, N.K., Venis, M.A., Grierson, D. (1988b) Purification and properties of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from strawberry fruit and its synthesis during ripening. J. Plant Physiol., in press

  • Grierson, D., Tucker, G.A. (1983) Timing of ethylene and polygalacturonase synthesis in relation to the control of tomato fruit ripening. Planta157, 174–179

    Google Scholar 

  • Guttridge, C.G., Nunns, A. (1974) Promotion of reddening in unripe strawberry fruits by fungal extracts. Nature247, 389

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoad, G.V., Anderson, H.M., Guttridge, C.G., Sparks, T.R. (1971) Ethylene and the ripening of strawberry fruits. In: Bristol Univ. Long Ashton Res. Stat. Ann. Rept., pp. 33–34

  • Hobson, G.E., Nichols, R., Davies, J.N., Atkey, P.T. (1984) The inhibition of tomato fruit ripening by silver. J. Plant Physiol.116, 21–29

    Google Scholar 

  • Hyodo, H. (1971) Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in strawberry fruits. Plant Cell Physiol.12, 989–991

    Google Scholar 

  • Knee, M., Sargent, J.A., Osborne, D.J. (1977) Cell wall metabolism in developing strawberry fruits. J. Exp. Bot.28, 377–396

    Google Scholar 

  • Nitsch, J.P. (1950) Growth and morphogenesis of the strawberry as related to auxin. Am. J. Bot.37, 211–215

    Google Scholar 

  • Sisler, E.C., Yang, S.F. (1984) Anti-ethylene effects ofcis-2-butene and cyclic olefins. Phytochemistry23, 2765–5768

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Given, N.K., Venis, M.A. & Gierson, D. Hormonal regulation of ripening in the strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit. Planta 174, 402–406 (1988).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

Key words