Monotonicity of ionization energies for three electron lithium-type systems
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Although it is quite obvious that an increasing amount of energy is required to remove more and more electrons from an atom, the proof of this observation seems to be a ‘remarkably difficult problem in mathematical physics’. Here, by using well-known energy bounds, we show the monotonicity of ionization energies for the simplest nontrivial system, i.e., a nucleus (with infinite mass) and three electrons, which physically corresponds to ionization in the lithium isoelectronic series via the para-channel.
KeywordsLithium Statistical Physic Mathematical Physic Group Theory Ionization Energy
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