Certain methods of activating PdCl2 catalysts for carbonylation of azo and nitro compounds
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In the synthesis of isocyanates by carbonylation of azo and nitro compounds, it has been found that Fe, Fe2O3, FeCl3 and FeBr3 activate the PdCl2 catalyst; the Fe and Fe2O3, under the influence of the PdCl2, pass into solution in the form of Fe(II) and Fe(III) compounds.
Anilines, diphenylurea, water, and acetanilide (which hydrolyze metal chlorides) and the thermally unstable salts pyridine hydrochloride, ammonium chloride, and triethylamine hydrochloride promote the catalyst PdCl2 + Py in the synthesis of isocyanates by carbonylation of nitro compounds in a steel autoclave; acetic anhydride, Zn, and basic oxides inhibit this reaction; and TiO2 and SiO2 have no effect on the catalyst activity.
Iron acetylacetonate suppresses the carbonylation of azobenzene in the presence of the catalysts PdCl2 + py and Pd(py)2Cl2 + py.
KeywordsTiO2 Fe2O3 Carbonylation Isocyanate Ammonium Chloride
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