American Journal of Community Psychology

, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp 673–706 | Cite as

Drug prevention in a community setting: A longitudinal study of the relative effectiveness of a three-year primary prevention program in Boys & Girls Clubs across the nation

  • Tena L. St. Pierre
  • D. Lynne Kaltreider
  • Melvin M. Mark
  • Kathryn J. Aikin


Longitudinal Study Social Psychology Health Psychology Prevention Program Primary Prevention 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arkin, R. M., Roemhild, H. F., Johnson, C. A., Luepker, R. V., & Murray, D. M. (1981). The Minnesota smoking prevention program: A seventh-grade health curriculum supplement.Journal of School Health, 51, 611–616.Google Scholar
  2. Bachman, J. G., Wallace, J. M., O'Malley, P. M., Johnston, L. D., Kurth, C. L., & Neighbors, H. W. (1991). Racial/ethnic differences in smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use among American high school seniors, 1976–89.American Journal of Public Health, 81, 372–377.Google Scholar
  3. Battjes, R. J., & Bell, C. S. (1985). Future directions in drug abuse prevention research. In R. J. Battjes & C. S. Bell (Eds.),Prevention research: Deterring drug abuse among children and adolescents (pp. 221–228). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  4. Botvin, G. J. (n.d.). Cornell University Medical School Health Survey.Google Scholar
  5. Botvin, G. J. (1983).Life Skills Training teacher's manual. New York: Smithfield.Google Scholar
  6. Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Botvin, E. M., Filazzola, A. D., & Millman, R. B. (1984). Prevention of alcohol misuse through the development of personal and social competence: A pilot study.Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 45, 550–552.Google Scholar
  7. Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Dusenbury, L., Tortu, S., & Botvin, E. M. (1990). Preventing adolescent drug abuse through a multimodal cognitive-behavioral approach: Results of a 3-year study.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 437–446.Google Scholar
  8. Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Filazzola, A. D., & Botvin, E. M. (1990). A cognitive-behavioral approach to substance abuse prevention: One-year follow-up.Addictive Behaviors, 15, 46–63.Google Scholar
  9. Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Renick, N. L., Filazzola, A. D., & Botvin, E. M. (1984). A cognitive-behavioral approach to substance abuse prevention.Addictive Behaviors, 9, 137–147.Google Scholar
  10. Botvin, G. J., Botvin, E. M., Renick, N. L., Filazzola, A. D., & Allegrante, J. P. (1984). Adolescents' self-reports of tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use: Examining the comparability of videotape, cartoon, and verbal bogus pipeline procedures.Psychological Reports, 55, 379–386.Google Scholar
  11. Botvin, G. J., & Eng, A. (1982). The efficacy of a multicomponent approach to the prevention of cigarette smoking.Preventive Medicine, 11, 199–211.Google Scholar
  12. Botvin, G. J., Eng, A., & Williams, C. L. (1980). Preventing the onset of cigarette smoking through life skills training.Preventive Medicine, 9, 135–143.Google Scholar
  13. Botvin, G. J., Renick, N. L., & Baker, E. (1983). The effects of scheduling format and booster sessions on a broad-spectrum psychosocial approach to smoking prevention.Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 6, 359–379.Google Scholar
  14. Botvin, G. J., Schinke, S. P., & Orlandi, M. A. (1989). Psychosocial approaches to substance abuse prevention: Theoretical foundations and empirical findings.Crisis (International Journal of Suicide and Crisis Studies), 10, 62–77.Google Scholar
  15. Botvin, G. J., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Personal and social skills training: Cognitive-behavioral approaches to substance abuse prevention. In C. S. Bell & R. Battjes (Eds.),Prevention research: Deterring drug abuse among children and adolescents (NIDA Research Monograph No. 63, pp. 8–49). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  16. Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (1979).Quasi-experimental design and analysis issues for field settings. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  17. Connell, D. B., Turner, R., & Mason, E. F. (1985). Summary of findings of the School Health Education Evaluation: Health promotion effectiveness, implementation and costs.Journal of School Health, 55, 316–321.Google Scholar
  18. Dielman, T. E., Horvath, W. J., Leach, S. L., & Lovenger, A. L. (1984).Peer pressure in recruitment to smoking (Final Report to NIDA). Ann Arbor: Department of Postgraduate Medicine, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  19. D'Onofrio, C. N. (1989). The use of self-reports on sensitive behaviors in health program evaluation. In M. T. Braverman (Ed.),Evaluating health promotion programs (pp. 59–74). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  20. Ellickson, P. L., & Bell, R. M. (1990). Drug prevention in junior high: A multi-site longitudinal test.Science, 247, 1299–1305.Google Scholar
  21. Flay, B. R., Ryan, K. B., Best, J. A., Brown, K. S., Kersell, M. W., d'Avernas, J. R., & Zanna, M. P. (1985). Are social psychological smoking programs effective? The Waterloo study.Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 8, 37–59.Google Scholar
  22. Games, P. A. (1990). Alternative analyses of repeated measures designs by ANOVA and MANCOVA. In A. von Eye (Ed.),Statistical methods in longitudinal research (Vol. 1, pp. 81–121). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  23. Hamburg, B. A., Braemer, H. C., & Jahnke, W. A. (1975). Hierarchy of drug use in adolescence: Behavioral and attitudinal correlates of substantial drug use.American Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 1155–1167.Google Scholar
  24. Hansen, W. B., Johnson, C. A., Flay, B. R., Graham, J. W., and Sobel, J. L. (1988). Affective and social influences approaches to the prevention of multiple substance abuse among seventh grade students: Results from Project SMART.Preventive Medicine, 17, 135–154.Google Scholar
  25. Hansen, W. B., Tobler, N. S., & Graham, J. W. (1990). Attrition in substance abuse prevention research: A meta-analysis of 85 longitudinally followed cohorts.Evaluation Review, 14, 677–685.Google Scholar
  26. Johnson, C. A., Hansen, W. B., Collins, L. M., & Graham, J. W. (1986). High-school smoking prevention: Results of a three-year longitudinal study.Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 9, 439–452.Google Scholar
  27. Johnson, C. A., Pentz, M. A., Weber, M. D., Dwyer, J. H., Baer, J., MacKinnon, D. P., & Hansen, W. B. (1990). Relative effectiveness of comprehensive community programming for drug abuse prevention with high-risk and low-risk adolescents.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 447–456.Google Scholar
  28. Johnson, C. A., & Solis, J. (1983). Comprehensive community programs for drug abuse prevention. In T. J. Glynn, C. G. Leukefeld, & J. P. Ludford (Eds.),Preventing adolescent drug abuse: Intervention strategies (NIDA Research Monograph No. 47, pp. 76–114). Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  29. Johnston, L., O'Malley, P., & Bachman, J. (1988).Illicit drug use, smoking, and drinking by America's high school students, college students, and young adults, 1975–1987. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  30. Johnston, L., O'Malley, P., & Bachman, J. (1992).Smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use among secondary school students, college students, and young adults, 1975–1991 Vol. I. Secondary school students (DHHS Publication No. ADM 92-1920) Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  31. Julnes, G., & Mohr, L. B. (1989). Analysis of no-difference findings in evaluation research.Evaluation Review, 13, 628–655.Google Scholar
  32. Jurs, S. G., & Glass, G. V. (1971). The effect of mortality on the internal and external validity of the randomized comparative experiment.Journal of Experimental Education, 40, 62–66.Google Scholar
  33. Kandel, D. B. (1978). Convergencies in prospective longitudinal surveys of drug use in normal populations. In D. B. Kandel (Ed.),Longitudinal research on drug use (pp. 3–38). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  34. A key to prevention: What kids think other kids are doing. (1991).Prevention Pipeline, 4(3), 65. (Reprinted fromPrevention File, 6(2), 1991).Google Scholar
  35. Kumpfer, K. L. (1986).Prevention of substance abuse: A critical review of risk factors and prevention strategies. Paper presented for the American Academy of Child Psychiatry's Project on Prevention: An intervention initiative.Google Scholar
  36. Lorion, R. P. (1988, October). Supporting adolescent resistance to substance involvement. Address to the Oklahoma Mental Research Institute 1988 Professional Symposium, Tulsa.Google Scholar
  37. Mauss, A. L., Hopkins, R. H., Weisheet, R. A., & Kearney, K. A. (1988). The problematic prospects for prevention in the classroom: Should alcohol education programs be expected to reduce drinking by youths?Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 49, 51–61.Google Scholar
  38. McAlister, A., Perry, C. L., Killen, J., Stinkard, L. A., & Maccoby, N. (1980). Pilot study of smoking, alcohol, and drug abuse prevention.American Journal of Public Health, 70, 719–721.Google Scholar
  39. Morrison, D. E., & Henkel, R. E. (Eds.) (1970).The significance test controversy. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  40. Moskowitz, J. M. (1989a). The primary prevention of alcohol problems: A critical review of the research literature.Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 50, 54–88.Google Scholar
  41. Moskowitz, J. M. (1989b). Preliminary guidelines for reporting outcome evaluation studies of health promotion and disease prevention programs. In M. T. Braverman (Ed.),Evaluating health promotion programs (pp. 101–112). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  42. Murray, D. M., & Perry, C. L. (1987). The measurement of substance use among adolescents: When is the ‘bogus pipeline’ method needed?Addictive Behaviors, 12, 225–233.Google Scholar
  43. Nagel, S. S., & Neef, M. (1979).Policy Analysis and Social Science Research. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  44. Pentz, M. A. (1983). Prevention of adolescent substance abuse through social skill development. In T. J. Glynn, C. G. Leukefeld, & J. P. Ludford (Eds.),Preventing adolescent drug abuse: Intervention strategies (NIDA Research Monograph, No. 47, pp. 195–231). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  45. Pentz, M. A., Dwyer, J. H., MacKinnon, D. P., Flay, B. R., Hansen, W. B., Wang, E. Y. I., & Johnson, C. A. (1989). A multicommunity trial for primary prevention of adolescent drug abuse.Journal of the American Medical Association, 261, 3259–3266.Google Scholar
  46. Perry, C. L. (1986). Community-wide health promotion and drug abuse prevention.Journal of School Health, 56, 359–363.Google Scholar
  47. Schneider, A. L. & Darcy, R. E. (1984). Policy implications of using significance tests in evaluation research.Evaluation Review, 8, 573–582.Google Scholar
  48. Tobler, J. S. (1986). Meta-analysis of 143 adolescent drug prevention programs: Quantitative outcome results of program participants compared to a control or comparison group.Journal of Drug Issues, 16, 535–567.Google Scholar
  49. Tobler, J. S. (1992). Drug prevention programs can work: Research findings.Journal of Addictive Diseases, 11(3), 1–28.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tena L. St. Pierre
    • 1
  • D. Lynne Kaltreider
    • 1
  • Melvin M. Mark
    • 2
  • Kathryn J. Aikin
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Policy Research and EvaluationThe Pennsylvania State University
  2. 2.Pennsylvania State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations