Cytochemical localization of guanylate cyclase in photoreceptor cells of the mouse

  • Ulrich Schraermeyer
  • Peter Esser
  • Salvatore Grisanti
  • Michael Rack
  • Klaus Heimann
Laboratory Investigation


• Background: Light-stimulated excitation causes a decrease of the cGMP concentration in vertebrate photoreceptor cells. The cGMP content is restored by the catalytic action of a guanylate cyclase (EC • Methods: The spatial distribution of guanylate cyclase was determined cytochemically in rod visual cells of the mouse. • Results: In retinal tissue of the mouse guanylate cyclase was found throughout the photoreceptor cells, in the outer and the inner segments, and was especially prominent in the cilia and in elongations of cilia extending into the outer segments. A reaction product of adenylate cyclase (EC could not be demonstrated in vertebrate rod outer segments. • Conclusion: The relatively high amount of guanylate cyclase in the inner segments and the cilia may contribute — at least in part — to the actual concentration and the time course of concentration changes of the cGMP concentration in rod outer segments.


Public Health Spatial Distribution Actual Concentration Catalytic Action Adenylate Cyclase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Berger SJ, deVries GW, Carter JG, Schulz DW, Passonneau PN, Lowry OH, Ferrendelli JA (1980) The distribution of the components of the cyclic GMP cycle in retina. J Biol Chem 255:3128–3133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fesenko EE, Kolesnikov SS, Lyubarsky AL (1985) Induction by cyclic GMP of cationic conductance in plasma membrane of retinal rod outer segment. Nature 313:310–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fleischman D, Denisevich M (1979) Guanylate cyclase of isolated bovine retinal rod axonemes. Biochemistry 18:5060–5066PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fleischman D, Denisevich M, Raveed D, Pannbacker RG (1980) Association of guanylate cyclase with the axoneme of retinal rods. Biochim Biophys Acta 630:176–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Koch KW (1991) Purification and identification of photoreceptor guanylate cyclase. J Biol Chem 266:8634–8637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Koch KW, Stryer L (1988) Highly cooperative feedback control of retinal rod guanylate cyclase by calcium ions. Nature 334:64–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Koch KW, Lambrecht HG, Haberecht M, Redburn D, Schmidt HHW (1994) Functional coupling of a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent nitric oxide synthase and a soluble guanylyl cyclase in vetrebrate photoreceptor cells. EMBO J 13:3312–3320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liu X, Seno K, Nishizawa Y, Hayashi F, Yamazaki A, Matsumoto H, Wakabayashi T, Usukura J (1994) Ultrastructural localization of retinal guanylate cyclase in human and monkey retinas. Exp Eye Res 59:761–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Poeggel G, Luppa H (1988) Histochemistry of nucleotidyl cyclases and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases. Histochem J 20:249–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pugh EN, Lamb TD (1993) Amplification and kinetics of the activation steps in phototransduction. Biochim Biophys Acta 1141:111–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rack M, Rubly N, Waschow C (1986) Effects of some chemical reagents on sodium current inactivation in myelinated nerve fibers of the frog. Biophys 150:557–564Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Saito T (1977) Histochemical methods using heavy metals. Acta Histochem Cytochem 10:226–29Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Saito T, Araki M, Akahoshi T (1980) Lead citrate as a capture reagent for demonstration of adenylate and guanylate cyclase activities. In: Lake BD, High OB, Holt SJ, Stoward PJ (eds) VIth International Histochemistry and Cytochemistry Congress 1980. Royal Microscopical Society, Oxford, p 335Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schraermeyer U, Stieve H, Rack M (1993) Cyclic 3′,5′-nucleotide phosphodiesterase: cytochemical localization in photoreceptor cells of the flyCalliphora erythrocephala. J Neurocytol 22:845–852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Toibana M, Tsukahara I, Ogawa K (1982) Cytochemical demonstration of guanylate cyclase activity in retinal photoreceptors with special reference to changes under light and dark adaptation. Acta Histochem Cytochem 15:5–20Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yamada E (1982) Morphology of vertebrate photoreceptors. Methods Enzymol 81:3–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yau KW, Nakatani K (1985) Light-suppressible, cyclic GMP-sensitive conductance in the plasma membrane of a truncated rod outer segment. Nature 317:252–255PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulrich Schraermeyer
    • 1
  • Peter Esser
    • 1
  • Salvatore Grisanti
    • 1
  • Michael Rack
    • 1
  • Klaus Heimann
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Vitreoretinal SurgeryUniversity Eye ClinicCologneGermany

Personalised recommendations