Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 183, Issue 3–4, pp 223–234 | Cite as

Structure and organization of the 5S rRNA genes (5S DNA) inPinus radiata (Pinaceae)

  • Susan Wilkie Gorman
  • Robert Dixon Teasdale
  • Christopher Ashley Cullis


A 5S rRNA gene (5S DNA) from the coniferPinus radiataD. Don has been cloned and characterized at the nucleotide, genomic and chromosomal levels. Sequencing revealed a repeat unit of 524 base pairs which is present in approximately 3000 copies per diploid genome. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis indicated that these copies are organized in tandem arrays of various length. Using in situ hybridization techniques, the tandem arrays appear to be present on all of the chromosomes. This complexity of chromosomal organization contrasts markedly with the few sites of uniform length found in angiosperm plants such as wheat, pea, and maize.

Key words

Gymnosperms Pinaceae Pinus Dispersed repeats 5S rRNA two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in situ hybridizations 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Appels, R., Gerlach, W. L., Dennis, E. S., Swift, H., Peacock, W. J., 1980: Molecular and chromosomal organization of DNA sequences coding for the ribosomal RNAs in cereals. — Chromosoma78: 293–311.Google Scholar
  2. , 1989: The molecular-cytogenetic analysis of grasses and its application to studying relationships among species of theTriticeae. — Genome31: 122–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bennett, M. D., Smith, J. B., 1975: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. — Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London (Biol.)274: 227–274.Google Scholar
  4. Cullis, C. A., Rivin, C. J., Walbot, V., 1984: A rapid procedure for the determination of the copy number of repetitive sequences in eukaryotic genomes. — Pl. Molec. Biol. Rep.2: 24–31.Google Scholar
  5. Ellis, T. H. N., Lee, D., Thomas, C. M., Simpson, P. R., Cleary, W. G., Newman, M.-A., Burcham, K. W. G., 1988: 5S rRNA genes inPisum: sequence, long range and chromosomal organization. — Molec. Gen. Genet.214: 333–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Fedoroff, N. V., Brown, D. D., 1978: The nucleotide sequence of oocyte 5S DNA inXenopus laevis. I. The AT-rich spacer. — Cell13: 701–716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Feinberg, A. P., Vogelstein, B., 1983: A technique for radiolabeling DNA restriction endonuclease fragments to high specific activity. — Anal. Biochem.132: 6–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Flavell, R., Rimpau, J., Smith, D. B., O'Dell, M., Bedbrook, J. R., 1980a: The evolution of plant genome structure. — InLeaver, C. J., (Ed.): Genome organization and expression in plants, pp. 35–47. — New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  9. , 1980b: Molecular events in the evolution of cereal chromosomes. — InDavies, D. R., Hopwood, D. A., (Eds): The plant genome, pp. 15–30. — Norwich, England: The John Innes Charity, John Innes Institute.Google Scholar
  10. Gall, J., Pardue, M. L., 1971: Nucleic acid hybridization in cytological preparations. — Methods Enzym.21: 470–480.Google Scholar
  11. Gerlach, W. L., Dyer, T. A., 1980: Sequence organization of the repeating units in the nucleus of wheat which contain 5S rRNA genes. — Nucleic Acids Res.21: 4851–4865.Google Scholar
  12. Goldsbourgh, P. B., Ellis, T. H. N., Cullis, C. A., 1981: Organization of the 5S RNA genes in flax. — Nucleic Acids Res9: 5895–5903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Govindaraju, D. R., Wagner, D. B., Smith, G. P., Dancik, B. P., 1988: Chloroplast DNA variation within individual trees of aPinus banksiana-Pinus contorta sympatric region. — Canad. J. Forest. Res.18: 1347–1350.Google Scholar
  14. , 1989: Novel chloroplast DNA polymorphism in a sympatric region of two pines. — J. Evol. Biol.2: 49–59.Google Scholar
  15. Hanahan, D., 1989: Studies on transformation ofEscherichia coli with plasmids. — J. Molec. Biol.166: 557–580.Google Scholar
  16. Hariharan, N., Reddy, P. S., Padayatty, J. D., 1987: 5S rRNA genes in rice embryos. — Pl. Molec. Biol.9: 443–451.Google Scholar
  17. Hemleben, V., Werts, D., 1988: Sequence organization and putative regulatory elements in the 5S rRNA genes of two higher plantsVigna radiata andMatthiola incana. — Gene62: 165–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. , 1977: The use of equilibrium centrifugation of actinomycin D-cesium chloride for the purification of ribosomal DNA. — Pl. Sci. Letters9: 129–135.Google Scholar
  19. Hofstetter, H., Kressman, A., Birnstiel, M., 1981: A split promoter for a eukaryotic tRNA gene. — Cell24: 573–585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Janson, S., Gustafsson, P., 1990: Type I and type II genes for the chlorophyll a/b-binding protein in the gymnospermPinus sylvestris (Scots pine): cDNA cloning and sequence analysis. — Pl. Molec. Biol.14: 287–296.Google Scholar
  21. Khoshoo, T. N., 1959: Polyploidy in gymnosperms. — Evolution13: 24–39.Google Scholar
  22. Knalmann, M., Burger, E.-C., 1986: Chromosomal localization of 5S rRNA genes inVicia narbonensis. — Caryologica39: 217–226.Google Scholar
  23. Long, E. O., Dawid, I. B., 1980: Repeated genes in eukaryotes. — Ann. Rev. Biochem.49: 727–764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Maniatis, T., Fritsch, E. F., Sambrook, J., 1982: Molecular cloning: A laboratory manual. — Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.Google Scholar
  25. Mascia, P. N., Rubenstein, I., Phillips, R. L., Wang, A. S., Xiang, L. Z., 1981: Localization of the 5S rRNA genes and evidence for diversity in the 5S rRNA region of maize. — Gene15: 7–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Miksche, J. P., 1985: Recent advances of biotechnology in forest trees. — Forestry Chronicle61: 449–453.Google Scholar
  27. , 1981: DNA base composition and repetitious DNA in several conifers. — Chromosoma41: 29–36.Google Scholar
  28. Miller, J. R., Cartwright, E. M., Brownlee, G. G., Fedoroff, N. V., Brown, D. D., 1978: The nucleotide sequence of oocyte 5S DNA inXenopus laevis. II. The GC-rich region. — Cell13: 717–725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Neale, D. B., Sederoff, R. R., 1988: Inheritance and evolution of conifer organelle genomes. — InHanover, J. W., Keathley, D. E., (Eds): Genetic manipulation of woody plants, pp. 251–264. — New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  30. Pederick, L. A., 1968: Chromosome inversions inPinus radiata. — Silvae Genetica17: 22–26.Google Scholar
  31. Pieler, T., Oei, S.-L., Hamm, J., Engelke, U., Erdmann, V. A., 1985: Functional domains of theXenopus laevis 5S gene promoter. — EMBO J4: 3751–3756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Rafalski, J. A., Wiewwiorski, M., Soll, D., 1982: Organization and nucleotide sequence of nuclear 5S rRNA genes in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus). — Nucleic Acids Res10: 7635–7643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Reddy, P., Appels, R., 1989: A second focus for the 5S multigene family inSecale L.: sequence divergence in two lineages of the family. — Genome32: 456–467.Google Scholar
  34. Sanger, F., Nicklen, S., Coulson, A. R., 1977: DNA sequencing with chain terminating inhibitors. — Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA74: 5463–5467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Sarge, K. D., Maxwell, E. S., 1991: Intermolecular hybridization of 5S rRNA with 18S rRNA: identification of a 5′-terminally located nucleotide sequence in mouse 5S rRNA which base-pairs with two specific complementary sequences in 18S rRNA. — Biochem. Biophys. Acta1088: 57–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Sastri, C., Appels, R., Playford, J., Baum, B., 1992: An overview of evolution in plant 5S DNA. — Pl. Syst. Evol.183: 169–181.Google Scholar
  37. Schneeberger, R. G., Creissen, G. P., Cullis, C. A., 1989: Chromosomal and molecular analysis of 5S RNA gene organization in the flax,Linum usitatissumum. — Gene83: 75–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Southern, E. M., 1975: Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. — J. Molec. Biol.98: 503–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Teasdale, R. D., 1986a: Generation of a sustainablePinus radiata cell suspension culture and studies of cellular nitrogen nutrition. — New Zealand J. Forestry Scie.16: 377–386.Google Scholar
  40. , 1986b: Mineral nutrient requirements of a Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) cell suspension culture. — Pl. Physiol.82: 942–945.Google Scholar
  41. , 1983: Preparation of viable protoplasts from suspension cultured Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) cells and subsequent regeneration to callus. — Pl. Cell Tissue Organ Culture2: 253–261.Google Scholar
  42. Tabor, S., Richardson, C. C., 1987: DNA sequence analysis with a modified bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase. — Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA84: 4767–4771.Google Scholar
  43. Thompson, W. F., Murray, M. G., 1980: Sequence organization in pea and mung bean DNA and a model for genome evolution. — InDavies, D. R., Hopwood, D. A., (Eds.): The plant genome, pp. 84–113. Norwich, England: The John Innes Charity, John Innes Institute.Google Scholar
  44. White, M. J. D., 1950: The chromosomes. — New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  45. Wolffe, A. P., Brown, D. D., 1988: Developmental regulation of two 5S ribosomal RNA genes. — Science241: 1626–1632.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan Wilkie Gorman
    • 2
  • Robert Dixon Teasdale
    • 3
  • Christopher Ashley Cullis
    • 1
  1. 1.Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Southwestern medical Center at DallasUniversity of TexasDallasUSA
  3. 3.Division of Science and TechnologyGriffith UniversityQueenslandAustralia

Personalised recommendations