Skip to main content

A new infrageneric classification and phylogenetic trends in the genusRhododendron (Ericaceae)

Abstract

Recent studies have improved the infrageneric classification ofRhododendron, including my own investigations on flavonoids and anthocyanins as chemosystematic markers. From a synoptical comparison of morphological, anatomical and phytochemical characters a new system for the genus is proposed. Phylogenetic character progressions and relationships among subgenera, sections and subsections are discussed and illustrated. Key positions for subg.Candidastrum between chori subgenerumRhododendron andNomazalea, and for subg.Choniastrum between chori subgenerumHymenanthes andNomazalea are suggested.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Chamberlain, D. F., 1982: A revision ofRhododendron. 2. Subg.Hymenanthes. — Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh39 (2), 209–486.

    Google Scholar 

  • Clarke, C. B., 1882: Order 82.Ericaceae. — InHooker, J. D., (Ed.): Flora of British India3, pp. 456–476. — London.

  • Cowan, J. M., Davidian, H. H., 1947: A review of rhododendrons in their series. 1. TheAnthopogon Alliance. — TheRhododendron Year Book, Roy. Horticult. Soc.2, 55–86.

    Google Scholar 

  • —, —, 1948: A review of rhododendrons in their series. 2. TheBoothii, Glaucum, Lepidotum Alliance. — TheRhododendron Year Book, Roy. Horticult. Soc.3, 51–111.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cullen, J., 1980: A revision ofRhododendron. 1. SubgenusRhododendron sectionsRhododendron &Pogonanthum. — Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh39 (1), 1–207.

    Google Scholar 

  • —, Chamberlain, D. F., 1978: A preliminary synopsis of the genusRhododendron. — Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh36 (1), 105–126.

    Google Scholar 

  • —, —, 1979: A preliminary synopsis of the genusRhododendron: II. — Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh37 (2), 327–338.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davidian, H. H., 1963: A review of rhododendrons in their series. 7. TheTriflorum Series. — TheRhododendron andCamellia Year Book, Roy. Horticult. Soc.17, 156–222.

    Google Scholar 

  • Drude, O., 1981:Ericaceae. — InEngler, A., Prantl, K., (Eds.): Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 4. Teil, 1. Abt., pp. 15–65. — Leipzig: Engelmann.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gray, A., 1878: Synoptical Flora of North-America2 (1), pp. 14–50. — New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harborne, J. B., Williams, C. A., 1971: Leaf survey of flavonoids and simple phenols in the genusRhododendron. — Phytochemistry10, 2727–2744.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hedegaard, J., 1968: Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Morphologie vonRhododendron -Samen —Rhododendron und immergrüne Laubgehölze. — Jahrbuch Deutsch. Rhod. Ges.,1968, 1–179.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hayes, S. F., Keenan, J., Cowan, J. M., 1951: A survey of the anatomy of theRhododendron leaf in the relation of the taxonomy of the genus. — Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh21 (1), 1–34.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hutchinson, J., 1946: Evolution and classification ofRhododendron. — TheRhododendron Yearbook, Roy. Horticult. Soc.1, 42–47.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maximowicz, C. J., 1870: Rhododendreae Asiae Orientalis — Mem. Acad. Impér. Sci. St. Pétersbourg, Ser. 7,16 (9), 1–53.

    Google Scholar 

  • Philipson, W. R., Philipson, M. N., 1968: Diverse nodal types inRhododendron. — J. Arnold Arbor.49, 193–224.

    Google Scholar 

  • Philipson, M. N., 1970: Cotyledons and the taxonomy ofRhododendron. — Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh30, 55–77.

    Google Scholar 

  • —, Philipson, W. R., 1971: The classification ofRhododendron. — TheRhododendron andCamellia Yearbook, Roy. Horticult. Soc.25, 1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  • —, —, 1975: A revision ofRhododendron sect.Lapponicum. — Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh34, 1–71.

    Google Scholar 

  • Planchon, J. E., 1853/1854:Rhododendron Subg.Azaleastrum. — Flores des Serres et des Jardins9, 75.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seithe, A., 1960: Die Haarformen der GattungRhododendron L. und die Möglichkeit ihrer taxonomischen Verwertung. — Bot. Jahrb.79, 297–393.

    Google Scholar 

  • —, 1962: Die Haarformen der GattungRhododendron L., Nomenklatorischer Nachtrag. Bot. Jahrb.81, 336.

    Google Scholar 

  • —, 1980:Rhododendron Hairs and Taxonomy. — InLuteyn, J. L., O'Brien, M. E., (Eds.):Contributions toward a classification ofRhododendron, pp. 89–115. — New York: New York Bot. Garden.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sleumer, H., 1949: Ein System der GattungRhododendron L. — Bot. Jahrb.74, 511–553.

    Google Scholar 

  • —, 1964: Florae Malesianae Precursores39. Supplementary notes towards the knowledge of theEricaceae in Malaysia 2. — Blumea12 (2), 339–347.

    Google Scholar 

  • —, 1966: An account ofRhododendron in Malesia. — Flora Malesiana, Ser.I, 6, 469–674.

    Google Scholar 

  • Small, J. K., 1914:Ericaceae. — North American Flora29 (1), 33–102.

    Google Scholar 

  • Spethmann, W., 1975: Flavonoide und carotinoide Inhaltsstoffe inRhododendron-Blüten und ihre möglichen Zusammenhänge zur Chemotaxonomie und Farbgebung. —Rhododendron u. Immergrüne Laubgehölze, Jahrb. Deutsch. Rhod. Ges. 1975, 73–99.

    Google Scholar 

  • —, 1980a: Flavonoids and Carotenoids ofRhododendron flowers and their significance for the classification of the genusRhododendron. — InLuteyn, J. L., O'Brien, M. E., (Eds.): Contributions toward a classification ofRhododendron, pp. 247–276. — New York: New York Bot. Garden.

    Google Scholar 

  • - 1980b: Infragenerische Gliederung der GattungRhododendron unter Berücksichtigung der flavonoiden und carotinoiden Blüteninhaltsstoffe und der Entstehung der Blütenfarben. — Diss. Universität Hamburg.

  • Stevens, P. F., 1976: The altitudinal and geographical distributions of flower types inRhododendron sect.Vireya, especially in the Papuasian species, and their significance. — Bot. J. Linn. Soc.72, 1–33.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stevenson, J. B., 1930: The Species ofRhododendron. — London: TheRhododendron Society.

    Google Scholar 

  • —, (Ed.), 1947: The Species ofRhododendron. 2nd ed. — London: TheRhododendron Society.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, E. H., Rehder, A., 1921: A Monograph of Azaleas. — Cambridge: University Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Spethmann, W. A new infrageneric classification and phylogenetic trends in the genusRhododendron (Ericaceae). Pl Syst Evol 157, 9–31 (1987). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00939178

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00939178

Key words

  • Angiosperms
  • Ericaceae
  • Rhododendron
  • Systematics
  • infrageneric classification
  • phylogeny
  • flavonoids
  • anthocyanins
  • flower colour