American Journal of Community Psychology

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 349–374 | Cite as

The role of life events, family support, and competence in adolescent substance use: A test of vulnerability and protective factors

  • Thomas Ashby Wills
  • Donato Vaccaro
  • Grace McNamara
Article

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrams, D. B. (1983). Alcohol and stress interactions. In L. A. Pohorecky & J. Brick (Eds.),Stress and alcohol use (pp. 61–86). New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  2. Baer, P. E., Garmezy, L. B., McLaughlin, R. J., Pokorny, A. D., & Wernick, M. J. (1987). Stress-coping, family conflict, and adolescent alcohol use.Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 10, 449–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator distinction in social-psychological research.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barrera, M. (1981). Social support in the adjustment of pregnant adolescents. In B. H. Gottlieb (Ed),Social networks and social support (pp. 69–96). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  5. Blechman, E. A., & Tryon, A. S. (1992). Familial origins of affective competence and depression. In K. Schlesinger & B. Bloom (Eds.),Boulder symposium on clinical psychology: Depression. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum (in press).Google Scholar
  6. Blechman, E. A., Tinsley, B., Carella, E. T., & McEnroe, M. J. (1985). Childhood competence and behavior problems.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94, 70–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Burke, R. J., & Weir, T. (1979). Helping responses of parents and peers and adolescent well-being.Journal of Psychology, 102, 49–62.Google Scholar
  8. Burt, C. E., Cohen, L. H., & Bjorck, J. P. (1988). Perceived family environment as a moderator of young adolescents' life stress adjustment.American Journal of Community Psychology, 16, 101–122;PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cappell, H., & Greeley, J. (1987). Alcohol and tension reduction: An update on research and theory. In H. T. Blane & K. E. Leonard (Eds.),Psychological theories of drinking and alcoholism (pp. 15–54). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  10. Cauce, A. M. (1986). Social networks and social competence: Exploring the effects of early adolescent friendships.American Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 607–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cauce, A. M. (1987). School and peer competence in early adolescence: A test of domain-specific self-perceived competence.Developmental Psychology, 23, 287–291.Google Scholar
  12. Cauce, A. M., Reid, M., Landesman, S., & Gonzales, N. (1990). Social support in young children: Measurement, structure, and behavioral impact. In B. R. Sarason, I. G. Sarason, & G. R. Pierce (Eds.),Social support: An interactional view (pp. 64–94). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. Chassin, L., Mann, L. M., & Sher, K. J. (1988). Self-awareness theory, family history of alcoholism, and adolescent alcohol involvement.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 206–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Christie, K. A., Burke, J. D., Regier, D. A., Rae, D. S., Boyd, J. H., & Locke, B. Z. (1988). Epidemiologic evidence for early onset of mental disorders and higher risk of drug abuse in young adults.American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 971–975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983).Applied multiple regression/correlation research for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  16. Cohen, L. H., Burt, C. E., & Bjorck, J. P. (1987). Effects of life events experienced by young adolescents and their parents.Developmental Psychology, 23, 583–592.Google Scholar
  17. Cohen, S., & Williamson, G. M. (1988). Perceived stress in a probability sample of the United States. In S. Spacapan & S. Oskamp (Eds.),The social psychology of health (pp. 31–67). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  18. Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis.Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Compas, B. E. (1987). Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence.Psychological Bulletin, 101, 393–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Deykin, E. Y., Levy, J. C., & Wells, V. (1987). Adolescent depression, alcohol and drug abuse.American Journal of Public Health, 76, 178–182.Google Scholar
  21. Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being.Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dishion, T. J., Reid, J. B., & Patterson, G. R. (1988). Empirical guidelines for a family intervention for adolescent drug use. In R. H. Coombs (Ed.),The family context of adolescent drug use (pp. 189–224). New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  23. DuHamel, K. (1992). Psychosocial predictors of substance use in young children: A multifactorial approach. In T. A. Wills (Chair),Stress-coping research on adolescent substance use. Symposium presented at the meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Boston, March.Google Scholar
  24. Finch, J. F., Okun, M. A., Barrera, M., Zautra, A. J., & Reich, J. W. (1989). Positive and negative social ties among older adults.American Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 585–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Folkman, S. (1984). Personal control and stress and coping processes: A theoretical analysis.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 839–852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Fondacaro, M. R., & Heller, K. (1983). Social support factors and drinking among college student males.Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 12, 285–299.Google Scholar
  27. Galizio, M., & Maisto, S. A. (1985).Determinants of substance abuse: Biological, psychological, and environmental factors. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  28. Garmezy, N., & Rutter, M. (Eds.) (1983).Stress, coping, and development in children. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  29. Greenberg, M. T., Siegel, J. M., & Leitch, C. J. (1983). The nature and importance of attachment relationships to parents and peers during adolescence.Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 12, 373–386.Google Scholar
  30. Grunberg, N. E., & Baum, A. (1985). Biological commonalities in stress and substance abuse. In S. Shiffman & T. A. Wills (Eds.),Coping and substance use (pp. 25–62). Orlando: FL: Academic.Google Scholar
  31. Haan, M. N., Kaplan, G. A., & Syme, S. L. (1989). Socioeconomic status and health: Old observations and new thoughts. In J. P. Bunker, D. S. Gomby, & B. H. Kehrer (Eds.),Pathways to health: The role of social factors (pp. 76–135). Menlo Park, CA: Henry J. Kaiser Foundation.Google Scholar
  32. Harter, S. (1982). The perceived competence scale for children.Child Development, 53, 87–97.Google Scholar
  33. Harter, S. (1985).Manual for the self-perception profile for children. Denver, CO: University of Denver.Google Scholar
  34. Hirschman, R. S., Leventhal, H., & Glynn, K. (1984). The development of smoking behavior: Cross-sectional survey data.Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 14, 184–206.Google Scholar
  35. Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. (1977).Problem behavior and psychosocial development. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  36. Johnson, J. H., & Brand, A. H. (1982). Note on the reliability of the Life Events Checklist.Psychological Reports, 50, 1274.Google Scholar
  37. Johnson, J. H., & McCutcheon, S. (1980). Assessing life stress in older children and adolescents. In I. G. Sarason & C. D. Spielberger (Eds.),Stress and anxiety (Vol. 7, pp. 111–125). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  38. Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., & Bachman, J. G. (1987).National trends in drug use and related factors among American high school students and young adults, 1976–1986. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse (DHHS Publication No. ADM 87-1535).Google Scholar
  39. Kandel, D. B., & Yamaguchi, K. (1985). Developmental patterns of the use of legal, illegal, and medically prescribed psychotropic drugs from adolescence to young adulthood. In C. L. Jones & R. J. Battjes (Eds.),Etiology of drug abuse (pp. 193–235). Rockville, MD; National Institute on Drug Abuse (DHHS Publication No. ADM 87-1335).Google Scholar
  40. Kaplan, H. B., Martin, S. S., & Robbins, C. (1984). Pathways to adolescent drug use: Self-derogation, peer influence, weakening of social controls, and early substance use.Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 25, 270–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kaplan, H. B., Martin, S. S., Johnson, R. J., & Robbins, C. A. (1986). Emotional distress and escalation of marijuana use.Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 27, 44–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kupersmidt, J. B., Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1990). The role of poor peer relationships in the development of disorder. In S. R. Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.),Peer rejection in childhood (pp. 274–305). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Labouvie, E. W. (1986). Alcohol and marijuana use in relation to adolescent stress.International Journal of the Addictions, 21, 333–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Labouvie, E. W. (1991). The development of problem use in early adolescence: Empirical findings and a proposed theoretical framework. In T. A. Wills (Chair),Adolescent substance use: Current theoretical models. Symposium presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, August.Google Scholar
  45. Larson, R. W. (1983). Adolescents' daily experience with family and friends: Contrasting opportunity systems.Journal of Marriage and the Family, 45, 739–750.Google Scholar
  46. Leadbeater, B. J., Hellner, I., Allen, J. P., & Aber, J. L. (1989). Assessment of interpersonal negotiation strategics of youth engaged in problem behaviors.Developmental Psychology, 25, 465–472.Google Scholar
  47. Leventhal, H., & Cleary, P. D. (1980). The smoking problem: A review of research and theory.Psychological Bulletin, 88, 370–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. McMahon, R. C., & Kouzekanani, K. (1991).Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis in the prediction of cocaine relapse. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, August.Google Scholar
  49. Mechanic, D., & Hansell, S. (1988). Adolescent competence, psychological well-being, and self-assessed physical health.Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 29, 364–374.Google Scholar
  50. Mosbach, P., & Leventhal, H. (1988). Peer group identification and smoking.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 238–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Murray, D. M., & Perry, C. L. (1987). The measurement of substance use among adolescents: When is the “bogus pipeline” method needed?Addictive Behaviors, 12, 225–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Newcomb, M. D., & Harlow, L. L. (1986). Life events and substance use among adolescents.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 564–577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Newcomb, M. D., Huba, G. J., & Bentler, P. M. (1981). Multidimensional assessment of stressful life events among adolescents.Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22, 400–415.Google Scholar
  54. Oetting, E. R., & Beauvais, F. (1990). Adolescent drug use: Findings of national and local surveys.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 385–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Pakier, A., & Wills, T. A. (1990).Life stress and social support predict illicit drug use in methadone patients. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Boston, August.Google Scholar
  56. Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment: Are low-accepted children at risk?Psychological Bulletin, 102, 357–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Rhoads, D. L. (1983). A longitudinal study of life stress and social support among drug abusers.International Journal of the Addictions, 18, 195–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Robins, L. N., & Przybeck, T. R. (1985). Age of onset of drug use as a factor in drug and other disorders. In C. L. Jones & R. J. Battjes (Eds.),Etiology of drug abuse (pp. 178–192). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse (DHHS Publication No. ADM-87-1335).Google Scholar
  59. Sandler, I. N., Miller, P., Short, J., & Wolchik, S. A. (1989). Social support as a protective factor for children in stress. In D. Belle (Ed.),Children's social networks and social supports (pp. 277–307). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  60. Sundberg, N. D., Snowden, L. R., & Reynolds, W. M. (1978). Toward assessment of personal competence and incompetence in life situations.Annual Review of Psychology, 29, 179–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Thoits, P. A. (1986). Social support as coping assistance.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 416–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Umberson, D. (1987). Family status and health behaviors: Social control as a dimension of social integration.Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 28, 306–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. U.S. Department of Commerce (1983).1980 Census of the Population (Vol. 1): Social and economic characteristics; Chap. C, Part 34 (New York). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  64. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1988). Tobacco use, stress, and mood regulation. InSurgeon General's Report on Health Consequences of Smoking: Nicotine Addiction (pp. 394–413). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (DHHS Publication No. CDC 88-8406).Google Scholar
  65. Vaux, A. (1988).Social support: Theoiy, research and intervention. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  66. Vondra, J., & Garbarino, J. (1988). Social influences on adolescent behavior problems. In S. Salzinger, J. Antrobus, & M. Hammer (Eds.),Social networks of children, adolescents, and college students (pp. 195–224). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  67. Wills, T. A. (1985). Supportive functions of interpersonal relationships. In S. Cohen & S. L. Syme (Eds.),Social support and health (pp. 61–82). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  68. Wills, T. A. (1986). Stress and coping in early adolescence: Relationships to substance use in urban school samples.Health Psychology, 5, 503–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Wills, T. A. (1990a). Multiple networks and substance use.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, 78–90.Google Scholar
  70. Wills, T. A. (1990b). Social support and the family. In E. Blechman (Ed.),Emotions and the family (pp. 75–98). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  71. Wills, T. A. (1990c). Stress and coping factors in the epidemiology of substance use. In L. T. Kozlowski et al. (Eds.),Research advances in alcohol and drug problems (Vol. 10, pp. 215–250). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  72. Wills, T. A. (1991). Social support and interpersonal relationships. In M. S. Clark (Ed.),Review of personality and social psychology (Vol. 12, pp. 265–289). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  73. Wills, T. A., & Shiffman, S. (1985). Coping and substance use: A conceptual framework. In S. Shiffman & T. A. Wills (Eds.),Coping and substance use (pp. 3–24). Orlando: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  74. Wills, T. A., & Vaughan, R. (1989). Social support and substance use in early adolescence.Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 12, 321–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Zevon, M. A., & Tellegen, A. (1982). The structure of mood change: An ideographic/nomothetic analysis.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 111–122.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Ashby Wills
    • 1
  • Donato Vaccaro
    • 1
  • Grace McNamara
    • 1
  1. 1.Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology and Department of Epidemiology and Social MedicineAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronx

Personalised recommendations