Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 188, Issue 3–4, pp 237–269 | Cite as

The phylogeny of land plants: A cladistic analysis based on male gametogenesis

  • David J. Garbary
  • Karen S. Renzaglia
  • Jeffrey G. Duckett


A cladistic analysis was carried out to resolve phylogenetic pattern among bryophytes and other land plants. The analysis used 22 taxa of land plants and 90 characters relating to male gametogenesis.Coleochaete orChara/Nitella were the outgroups in various analyses using HENNIG86, PAUP, and MacClade, and the land plant phylogeny was unchanged regardless of outgroup utilized. The most parsimonious cladograms from HENNIG86 (7 trees) have treelengths of 243 (C.I. = 0.58, R.I. = 0.82). Bryophytes are monophyletic as are hornworts, liverworts, and mosses, with hornworts identified as the sister group of a liverwort/moss assemblage. In vascular plants, lycophytes are polyphyletic andSelaginella is close to the bryophytes.Lycopodium is the sister group of the remaining vascular plants (minusSelaginella). Longer treelengths (over 250) are required to produce tree topologies in which either lycophytes are monophyletic or to reconstruct the paraphyletic bryophyte phylogeny of recent authors. This analysis challenges existing concepts of bryophyte phylogeny based on more classical data and interpretations, and provides new insight into land plant evolution.

Key words

Bryophytes ferns gymnosperms seed plants land plants Antheridia cladistics gametogenesis phylogeny spermatogenesis 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • David J. Garbary
    • 1
  • Karen S. Renzaglia
    • 2
  • Jeffrey G. Duckett
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of BiologySt. Francis Xavier UniversityAntigonishCanada
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesEast Tennessee State UniversityJohnson CityUSA
  3. 3.School of Biological SciencesQueen Mary and Westfield CollegeLondonU.K.

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