Advertisement

Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 168, Issue 3–4, pp 195–219 | Cite as

Comparative ultrastructure of the zoospores of nine species ofNeochloris (Chlorophyta)

  • Shin Watanabe
  • Gary L. Floyd
Article

Abstract

Nine species ofNeochloris can be divided into three groups on the basis of comparative ultrastructure of the flagellar apparatus, the cell wall and the pyrenoid of zoospores. In Group I,N. wimmeri andN. minuta, zoospores are thin-walled, pyrenoids are penetrated by stromal channels, and the basal bodies are in the clockwise absolute orientation and connected by the distal and two proximal fibers. In Group II,N. aquatica, N. vigenis, N. terrestris, N. pyenoidosa, andN. pseudostigmatica, zoospores are naked or covered by fuzzy material, pyrenoids are covered by a continuous starch sheath or invaginated by cytoplasmic channels, basal bodies are directly opposed, the distal fiber is differentiated into a ribbed structure at the central region, a striated microtubule-associated component (SMAC) is continuous between opposite two-membered rootlets and connected to the ribbed structure, proximal ends of basal bodies are covered by partial caps, each two-membered rootlet and a basal body are connected by a striated fiber to the X-membered rootlet associated with the opposite basal body, and the basal bodies, when oriented at wide angles, are joined at their proximal ends by core extensions. In Group III,N. pseudoalveolaris andN. cohaerens, zoospores are naked, pyrenoids are traversed by parallel thylakoids, basal bodies are in the counterclockwise absolute orientation and overlapped, and each X-membered rootlet is connected to the end of the opposite basal body by a terminal cap. It is suggested that the genusChlorococcopsis gen. nov. be erected for the Group I species. Group II, which includes the type species,N. aquatica, should be preserved asNeochloris. The group appears to be closely related to the coenobial generaPediastrum, Hydrodictyon, andSorastrum, and to have affinities with the coenocytic generaSphaeroplea andAtractomorpha as well. It is also suggested that the genusParietochloris gen. nov. be erected in thePleurastrophyceae for the species of Group III.

Key words

Algae Chlorophyta Chlorophyceae Pleurastrophyceae Hydrodictyon Neochloris Pediastrum Sphaeroplea Ultrastructure flagellar apparatus 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arce, G., Bold, H. C., 1958: SomeChlorophyceae from Cuban soils. — Amer. J. Bot.45: 492–503.Google Scholar
  2. Archibald, P. A., 1973: The genusNeochloris Starr (Chlorophyceae, Chlorococcales). — Phycologia12: 187–193.Google Scholar
  3. —, 1970: Reclassification of three unicellular green algae. — Phytomorphology20: 383–389.Google Scholar
  4. Bakker, M. E., Lokhorst, G. M., 1984: Ultrastructure ofDraparnaldia glomerata (Chaetophorales, Chlorophyceae). 1. The flagellar apparatus of the zoospore. — Nordic J. Bot.4: 261–273.Google Scholar
  5. Bischoff, H. W., Bold, H. C., 1963: Phycological studies 4. Some soil algae from Enchanted Rock and related algal species. — Univ. of Texas Publ. No.6318: 32–36.Google Scholar
  6. Bold, H. C., 1958: Three new chlorophycean algae. — Amer. J. Bot.45: 737–743.Google Scholar
  7. —, 1974: Phycological notes. 3. Two new saccate unicellularChlorophyceae. — J. Phycol.10: 189–193.Google Scholar
  8. —, 1985: Introduction to the algae. — Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, R. M., Jr.,McLean, R. J., 1969: New taxonomic criteria in classification ofChlorococcum species. 2. Pyrenoid fine structure. — J. Phycol.5: 114–118.Google Scholar
  10. Buchheim, M. A., Hoffman, L. R., 1986: Ultrastructure of male gametes ofSphaeroplea robusta. — J. Phycol.22: 176–185.Google Scholar
  11. Caceres, E. J., Robinson, D. G., 1980: Ultrastructural studies onSphaeroplea annulina (Chlorophyceae). Vegetative structure and mitosis. — J. Phycol.16: 313–320.Google Scholar
  12. —, —, 1981: Ultrastructural studies onSphaeroplea annulina (Chlorophyceae). 2. Spermatogenesis and male gamete structure. — J. Phycol.17: 173–180.Google Scholar
  13. Chantanachat, S., Bold, H. C., 1962: Phycological studies 2. Some algae from arid soils. — Univ. Texas Publ. No.6212: 1–75.Google Scholar
  14. Chardard, R., 1987: L'infrastructure du plasmalemme deDunaliella bioculata (algae verte) mise en evidence d'un cell-coat; essai de localisation des charges negatives. — Cryptogamie, Algologie8: 173–189.Google Scholar
  15. Deason, T. R., 1987: An ultrastructural comparison of two coccoid green algae. — J. Phycol.23 (Suppl.): 14.Google Scholar
  16. —, 1960: Phycological studies 1. Exploratory studies of Texas soil algae. — Univ. Texas Publ. No.6022: 28–30.Google Scholar
  17. —, 1987. Comparative ultrastructure of three species ofChlorosarcina (Chlorosarcinaceae, Chlorophyta). — J. Phycol.23: 187–195.Google Scholar
  18. Ettl, H., Moestrup, Ø., 1980: Light and electron microscopical studies onHafniomonas gen. nov. (Chlorophyceae, Volvocales), a genus resemblingPyramimonas (Prasinophyceae). — Pl. Syst. Evol.135: 177–210.Google Scholar
  19. Eyden, B. P., 1975: Light and electron microscope study ofDunaliella primolecta Butcher (Volvocida). — J. Protozool.22: 336–344.Google Scholar
  20. Floyd, G. L., Watanabe, S., Wilcox, L. W., 1989: Structure and flagellar beat inHeterochlamydomonas inaequalis, a motile, unicellular, green alga with unequal flagella and parallel basal bodies. — Cryptogamic Botany (in press).Google Scholar
  21. —, 1980: Fine structure of the zoospore ofUlothrix belkae with emphasis on the flagellar apparatus. — Protoplasma104: 17–31.Google Scholar
  22. Gould, R. R., 1975: The basal bodies ofChlamydomonas reinhardtii. Formation from probasal bodies, isolation and partial characterization. — J. Cell Biol.65: 65–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gromov, B. V., Gavrilova, O. V., 1985: Ultrastructural patterns of the flagellar apparatus ofChlorococcum minutum (Chlorophyceae) zoospore. — Cytology27: 940–943, (in Russian).Google Scholar
  24. —, —, 1987: Ultrastructural specificity of zoospores of a unicellular green algaNeochloris alveolaris. — Cytology29: 637–641, (in Russian).Google Scholar
  25. Groover, R. D., Bold, H. C., 1969: Phycological studies 8. The taxonomy and comparative physiology of theChlorosarcinales and certain edaphic algae. — Univ. of Texas Publ. No.6907: pp. 45–47.Google Scholar
  26. Hawkins, A. F., Leedale, G. F., 1971: Zoospore structure and colony formation inPediastrum spp. andHydrodictyon reticulatum (L.)Lagerheim. — Ann. Bot.35: 201–211.Google Scholar
  27. Herndon, W. R., 1958: Some new species of chlorococcalean algae. — Amer. J. Bot.45: 308–323.Google Scholar
  28. Hoffman, L. R., 1968: Observations on the fine structure ofOedogonium. 5. Evidence for the de novo formation of pyrenoids in zoospores ofOe. cardiacum. — J. Phycol.4: 212–218.Google Scholar
  29. —, 1976: Fine structure ofCylindrocapsa zoospores. — Protoplasma87: 191–219.Google Scholar
  30. —, 1984: Male gametes ofAtractomorpha echinata Hoffman (Chlorophyceae). — J. Phycol.20: 573–584.Google Scholar
  31. Hoops, H. J., Witman, G. B., 1985: Basal bodies and associated structures are not required for normal flagellar motion or phototaxis in the green alga,Chlorogonium elongatum. — J. Cell Biol.100: 297–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Manton, I., 1964: Observations of the fine structure of the zoospore and young germling ofStigeoclonium. — J. Exp. Bot.15: 399–411.Google Scholar
  33. Marchant, H. J., 1974: Mitosis, cytokinesis and colony formation in the green algaSorastrum. — J. Phycol.10: 107–120.Google Scholar
  34. —, 1979: Microtubular determination of cell shape during colony formation by the algaPediastrum. — Protoplasma98: 1–14.Google Scholar
  35. —, 1972a: Ultrastructure and differentiation ofHydrodictyon reticulatum. 3. Formation of the vegetative daughter net. — Austral. J. Biol. Sci.25: 265–278.Google Scholar
  36. —, —, 1972b: Ultrastructure and differentiation ofHydrodictyon reticulatum. 4. Conjugation of gametes and the development of zygospores and azygospores. — Austral. J. Biol. Sci.25: 279–291.Google Scholar
  37. Markowitz, M. M., Hoffman, L. R., 1974: Chloroplast inclusions in zoospores ofOedocladium. — J. Phycol.10: 308–315.Google Scholar
  38. Mattox, K. R., Stewart, K. D., 1984: Classification of the green algae: a concept based on comparative cytology. — InIrvine, D. E. G., John, D. M. (Eds.): The systematics of the green algae, pp. 29–72. — London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  39. Melkonian, M., 1975: The fine structure of the zoospores ofFritschiella tuberosa Iyeng. (Chaetophorineae, Chlorophyceae) with special reference to the flagellar apparatus. — Protoplasma86: 391–404.Google Scholar
  40. —, 1977: The flagellar root system of zoospores of the green algaChlorosarcinopsis (Chlorosarcinales) as compared withChlamydomonas (Volvocales). — Pl. Syst. Evol.128: 79–88.Google Scholar
  41. —, 1978: Structure and significance of cruciate flagellar root systems in green algae: Comparative investigations in species ofChlorosarcinopsis (Chlorosarcinales). — Pl. Syst. Evol.130: 265–292.Google Scholar
  42. —, 1984: Flagellar apparatus ultrastructure in relation to green algal classification. — InIrvine, D. E. G., John, D. M. (Eds.): The systematics of the green algae, pp. 73–120. — London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  43. —, 1983: Zoospore ultrastructure in the green algaFriedmannia israelensis: an absolute configuration analysis. — Protoplasma114: 67–84.Google Scholar
  44. —, 1984a: An ultrastructural comparison betweenSpermatozopsis andDunaliella (Chlorophyceae). — Pl. Syst. Evol.146: 31–46.Google Scholar
  45. —, —, 1984b: Ultrastructure of the flagellar apparatus in the green flagellateSpermatozopsis similis (Chlorophyceae). — Pl. Syst. Evol.146: 145–162.Google Scholar
  46. Moestrup, Ø., 1972: Observation on the fine structure of spermatozoids and vegetative cells of the green algaGolenkinia. — Brit. Phycol. J.7: 169–183.Google Scholar
  47. —, 1978: On the phylogenetic validity of the flagellar apparatus in green algae and other chlorophyll a and b containing plants. — BioSystems10: 117–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Molnar, K. E., Stewart, K. D., Mattox, K. R., 1975: Cell division in the filamentousPleurastrum and its comparison with the unicellularPlatymonas (Chlorophyceae). — J. Phycol.11: 287–296.Google Scholar
  49. O'Kelly, C. J., Floyd, G. L., 1984a: Flagellar apparatus absolute orientation and the phylogeny of the green algae. — BioSystems16: 227–251.Google Scholar
  50. —, —, 1984b: Correlations among patterns of sporangial structure and development, life histories, and ultrastructural features in theUlvophyceae. — InIrvine, D. E. G., John, D. M. (Eds.): The systematics of the green algae, pp. 121–156. — London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  51. Oliveira, L., Bisalputra, T., Antia, N. J., 1980: Ultrastructural observation of the surface coat ofDunaliella tertiolecta from staining with cationic dyes and enzyme treatment. — New Phytol.85: 385–392.Google Scholar
  52. Pickett-Heaps, J. D.,1975: Green algae. — Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer.Google Scholar
  53. Retallack, B., Butler, R. D., 1970: The development and structure of pyrenoids inBulbochaete hiloensis. — J. Cell Sci.6: 229–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Ringo, D. L., 1967: Flagellar motion and fine structure of the flagellar apparatus inChlamydomonas. — J. Cell Biol.33: 543–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Rogers, C. E., Mattox, K. R., Stewart, K. D., 1980: The zoospore ofChlorokybus atmophyticus, a charophyte with sarcinoid growth habit. — Amer. J. Bot.67: 774–783.Google Scholar
  56. Starr, R. C., 1953: Further studies in the genusChlorococcum Meneghini. — Lloydia16: 142–148.Google Scholar
  57. —, 1955: A comparative study ofChlorococcum Meneghini and other spherical, zoosporeproducing genera of theChlorococcales. — Indiana Univ. Publ. Sci. Ser. No.20: 1–111.Google Scholar
  58. —, 1987: UTEX—the culture collection of algae at the University of Texas at Austin. — J. Phycol.23 (Suppl.): 1–47.Google Scholar
  59. Swale, E. M., Belcher, J. H., 1971: Investigation of a species ofAnkyra Fott by light and electron microscopy. — Brit. Phycol. J.6: 41–50.Google Scholar
  60. Vinatzer, G., 1975: Neue Bodenalgen aus den Dolomiten. — Pl. Syst. Evol.123: 213–235.Google Scholar
  61. Watanabe, S., 1981: Observations onUrnella terrestris Playfair (Chlorophyceae, Chlorococcales) in culture. — Phycologia20: 12–15.Google Scholar
  62. —, 1983: New and interesting green algae from soils of some Asian and Oceanian regions. — Arch. Protistenk.127: 223–270.Google Scholar
  63. —, 1989a: Variation in the ultrastructure of the biflagellate motile cells of six unicellular genera of theChlamydomonadales andChlorococcales (Chlorophyceae), with emphasis on the flagellar apparatus. — Amer. J. Bot.76: 307–317.Google Scholar
  64. —, —, 1989b: Ultrastructure of the zoospore of the coenocytic algaeAscochloris andUrnella (Chlorophyceae), with emphasis on the flagellar apparatus. — Brit. Phycol. J.24: 143–152.Google Scholar
  65. —, —, 1988: Ultrastructure of the zoospores and vegetative cells ofTetraedron andChlorotetraedron (Chlorophyceae). — J. Phycol.24: 490–495.Google Scholar
  66. —, 1989: Light and electron microscopy ofBrachiomonas submarina Bohlin (Chlamydomonadales, Chlorophyceae). — Phycologia28: 188–196.Google Scholar
  67. Watson, M. W., Arnott, H. J., 1973: Ultrastructural morphology ofMicrothamnion zoospores. — J. Phycol.9: 15–29.Google Scholar
  68. Weiss, R. L., 1984: Ultrastructure of the flagellar roots inChlamydomonas gametes. — J. Cell Sci.67: 133–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Wilcox, L. W., Floyd, G. L., 1988: Ultrastructure of the gamete ofPediastrum duplex (Chlorophyceae). — J. Phycol.24: 140–146.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shin Watanabe
    • 2
  • Gary L. Floyd
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biology, Faculty of EducationToyama UniversityToyamaJapan

Personalised recommendations