Advertisement

Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 156, Issue 3–4, pp 117–126 | Cite as

Breeding systems and pollination inVigna minima (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae)

  • Mambully Chandrasekhar Gopinathan
  • Cherukuri Ragavendra Babu
Article

Abstract

Four types of floral breeding systems—(i) chasmogamy, (ii) aerial pseudocleistogamy, (iii) subterranean pseudocleistogamy and (iv) obligate subterranean true cleistogamy—are observed in the populations ofVigna minima inhabiting the Western Ghats (India). Five categories of phenotypes are recognized based on the number and kinds of floral breeding systems found in a given individual. The frequencies of different categories of phenotypes not only show intra- and interpopulation variation, but also fluctuate from generation to generation suggesting differences in the genetic structure of populations. This polymorphism in the breeding system of a single species is unique and may be adaptive. Obligate subterranean true cleistogamy and amphicarpy appear to be adaptations to jungle fires and soil erosion.—The flowers are of the flag-blossom type and insect visitors act as tripping agents. The tripping mechanism together with the polymorphic floral breeding system result in a balanced mixture of selfing and outcrossing. Such a recombination system may enhance the fitness ofV. minima which is essentially a colonizing species.

Key words

Angiosperms Leguminosae Papilionoideae Vigna minima Polymorphism floral breeding systems pollination 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arroyo, M. T. K., 1981: Breeding system and pollination biology inLeguminosae. — InPolhill, R. M., Raven, P. H., (Eds.): Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 2, International Legume Conference, 1978, pp. 723–769. — Kew, London.Google Scholar
  2. Bates, R. P., Henson, P. R., 1955: Studies of inheritance inLespedeza cuneata Don. — Agron. J.47, 503–507.Google Scholar
  3. Bernström, P., 1950: Cleisto-chasmogamic seed-setting in di- and tetraploidLamium amplexicaule. — Hereditas36, 492–506.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, W. V., 1952: The relation of soil moisture to cleistogamy inStipa leucotricha. — Bot. Gaz.113, 438–444.Google Scholar
  5. Clay, K., 1982: Environmental and genetic determinants of cleistogamy in a natural population of grassDanthonia spicata. — Evolution36, 734–741.Google Scholar
  6. Connor, H. E., Matthews, B. A., 1977: Breeding system in New Zealand grasses. VII. Cleistogamy inMicrolaena. — New Zealand J. Bot.15, 531–534.Google Scholar
  7. Cope, W. A., 1966: Growth rate and yield in sericeaLespedeza in relation to seed size and outcrossing. — Crop Sci.6, 566–568.Google Scholar
  8. Donnely, E. D., 1979: Selection for cleistogamy in sericeaLespedeza. — Crop Sci.19, 528–530.Google Scholar
  9. Ernst-Schwarzenbach, M., 1956: Kleistogamie and Antherenbau in der Hydrocharitaceen-GattungOttelia. — Phytomorphology6, 296–311.Google Scholar
  10. Free, J. B., 1970: Insect Pollination of Crops. — New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Girardeau, J. H., Leuck, D. B., 1967: Effect of mechanical and bee tripping on yield of pea nut. — J. Econ. Entom.60, 1454–1455.Google Scholar
  12. Goebel, K., 1904: Die Kleistogamen-Blüten und die Anpassungstheorien. — Biol. Zentralbl.24, 673–697, 737–763, 769–787.Google Scholar
  13. —, 1905: Chasmogamie und Kleistogamie der Blüten beiViola. — Allg. Bot. Z. Syst.95, 234–239.Google Scholar
  14. Gopinathan, M. C., Babu, C. R., 1986: A unique growth pattern in a tropical legumeVigna minima. — Bot. J. Linn. Soc.92, 263–268.Google Scholar
  15. Grant, V., 1958: The regulation of recombination in plants. — Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol.23, 337–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Harlan, J. R., 1945: Cleistogamy and chasmogamy inBromus carinatus. — Amer. J. Bot.32, 66–72.Google Scholar
  17. Haskell, G., 1954: Adaptation and the breeding system in groundsel. — Genetica26, 468–484.Google Scholar
  18. Heslop-Harrison, J., 1959: Photoperiod and fertility inRottboellia exallata L. — Ann. Bot.23, 346–349.Google Scholar
  19. Holden, J. J. W., Bond, D. A., 1960: Studies on the breeding system of the field beanVicia faba L. — Heridity15, 175–192.Google Scholar
  20. Hutton, E. M., 1960: Flowering and pollination inIndigofera spicata, Phaseolus lathyroides, Desmodium uncinatum and some other tropical pasture legumes. — Emp. J. Exp. Agric.28, 235–243.Google Scholar
  21. Jain, S. K., 1975: Population structurs and the effects of the breeding system. — InFrankel, O., Hawkes, J. G., (Eds.): Crop Genetic Resources for Today and Tomorrow, pp. 15–36. — Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  22. —, 1968: Simulations of models involving mixed selfing and random mating. I. Stochastic variation in outcrossing and selected parameters. — Heredity23, 411–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Khoshoo, T. N., Mehra, R. C., Bose, K., 1969: Hybridity, polyploidy and change in breeding system in aRuellia hybrid. — Theor. Appl. Genet.33, 133–140.Google Scholar
  24. Lee, C. W., Erikson, H. J., Janick, J., 1976: Inheritance of cleistogamy inSalpiglossis sinuata. — J. Heredity67, 267–270.Google Scholar
  25. Levin, D. A., 1972: Plant density, cleistogamy and self-fertilization in natural populations ofLithospermum caroliniensis. — Amer. J. Bot.59, 71–78.Google Scholar
  26. Long, R. W., 1966: Artificial interspecific hybridization inRuellia (Aconthaceae). — Amer. J. Bot.53, 917–927.Google Scholar
  27. —, 1977: Artificial induction of obligate cleistogamy in species hybrids inRuellia (Acanthaceae). — Bull. Torrey Bot. Club104, 53–56.Google Scholar
  28. Lord, E., 1981: Cleistogamy: a tool for the study of floral morphogenesis, function and evolution. — Bot. Rev.47, 421–450.Google Scholar
  29. Madge, M. A. P., 1929: Spermatogenesis and fertilization in cleistogamous flowers ofViola odorata var.praecox Gregory. — Ann. Bot.43, 545–577.Google Scholar
  30. Maheshwari, J. K., 1962: Cleistogamy in angiosperms. — InMaheshwari, P., Johri, B. M., Vasil, I. K., (Eds.): Proceedings of Summer School of Botany, pp. 145–155. — New Delhi: Ministry of Science and Cultural Affairs.Google Scholar
  31. Mather, K., 1973: Genetic Structure of Populations. — London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  32. McKee, R., Hyland, H. L., 1941: Apetalous and petaliferous flowers inLespedeza. — J. Mer. Soc. Agron.33, 811–815.Google Scholar
  33. Mlyniec, W. F., Wotytowski, F., 1962: Zastosowanie trmieli (Bombinae) W-badaniach biologii kwitnienia ozimej wyki (Vicia villosa Roth.). — Ekol. Pol.8, 59–65.Google Scholar
  34. Negrean, G., Dihoru, G., 1972: Cleistogamie subterana laVicia amphicarpa (L. Nomen). — Dorthis. Stud. Cercet. Sti. Ser. d. Str. Biol.24, 377–380.Google Scholar
  35. Ritzerow, H., 1908: Über Bau und Befruchtung kleistogamer Blüten. — Flora98, 163–212.Google Scholar
  36. Schemske, D. W., Horovitz, C. C., 1984: Variation among floral visitors in pollination ability: a precondition for mutualism specialisation. — Science225, 519–521.Google Scholar
  37. Stebbins, G. L., 1957: Self-fertilization and population variability in the higher plants. — Amer. Natur.41, 337–357.Google Scholar
  38. Stopp, K., 1958: Die verbreitungshemmenden Einrichtungen in der südafrikanischen Flora. — Bot. Studien (Fischer, Jena)8.Google Scholar
  39. Uphof, J. C. T., 1938: Cleistogamic flowers. — Bot. Rev.4, 21–49.Google Scholar
  40. Van der Pijil, L., 1972: Principles of Dispersal in Higher Plants. — Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  41. Zohary, M., 1937: Die Verbreitungsökologischen Verhältnisse der Pflanzen Palästinas, I. — Beih. Bot. Zentralbl. Abt. A,46, 1–155.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mambully Chandrasekhar Gopinathan
    • 1
  • Cherukuri Ragavendra Babu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations