An analysis of optical waveguide tapers
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The characteristics of slab waveguide tapers with finite-thickness cladding are investigated by approximating the tapered section as a series of uniform five-layer waveguides with successive changes in the core and cladding thickness. The behaviour of multimode coupling and transmission characteristics for typical tapers are studied in detail by computer simulation, employing parameter values appropriate for practical systems. Strong coupling and efficient conversion between core and cladding modes are demonstrated. In addition, it is shown that for tapers of moderate slopes, the nearest-neighbour coupling approximation is quite adequate for the calculation of the individual mode amplitudes. For steeper tapers, however, additional neighbouring modes have to be taken into account, and the modal energy tends to spread further towards the higher-order modes. It is also demonstrated that relatively large step-size can be used in the iterative numerical calculations. This, in conjunction with the choice of an appropriate coupling scheme (e.g., the nearest-neighbour approximation for mild tapers), makes it possible to reduce the cost of computer simulation. The relevance of the present analysis to fiber tapers is also discussed.
PACS42.82 42.10 42.80 85.60
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