Advertisement

Origins of life

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 243–254 | Cite as

Primordial transport of sugars and amino acids via Schiff bases

  • William Stillwell
  • Aruna Rau
Article

Abstract

Experimental support is given for a model concerning the origin of a primordial transport system. The model is based on the facilitated diffusion of amino acids stimulated by aliphatic aldehyde carriers and sugars stimulated by aliphatic amine carriers. The lipid-soluble diffusing species is the Schiff base. The possible role of this simple transport system in the origin of an early protocell is discussed.

Keywords

Sugar Organic Chemistry Aldehyde Geochemistry Transport System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adrian, G. and Huang, L.: 1979,Biochem. 18, 5610.Google Scholar
  2. Bahadur, K.: 1972,Zbl. Bakt. 127, 643.Google Scholar
  3. Bahadur, K.: 1973,India National Sci. Acad. 39B, 455.Google Scholar
  4. Bangham, A. D.: 1968,Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol.,18, 29.Google Scholar
  5. Ellis, G. P.: 1959, in E. Wolfrom (ed.)Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry, vol. 14, Academic Press, New York, p. 63.Google Scholar
  6. Folsome, C. E., Allen, R. O., and Ichirose, N. K.: 1975,Precambian Res. 2, 263.Google Scholar
  7. Fox, S. W.: 1973,Naturwiss. 60, 359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Fox, S. W., and Dose, K.: 1977,Molecular Evolution and the Origin of Life, revised ed., Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Gebicki, J. M. and Hicks, M.: 1976,Chem. Phys. Lipids 16, 142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Gebicki, J. M. and Hicks, M.: 1977,Chem. Phys. Lipids 20, 243.Google Scholar
  11. Gelpi, E., Han, J., Nooner, D. W., and Oró, J.: 1970,Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 34, 965.Google Scholar
  12. Goldacre, R. J.: 1958, in J. F. Danielli (ed.),Surface Phenomena in Chemistry and Biology, Pergamon Press New York, p. 278.Google Scholar
  13. Goldstein, I. M. and Weissmann, G.: 1977,Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 75 604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Grossenbacher, K. A. and Knight, C. A.: 1965, in S. W. Fox (ed.),The Origin of Prebiological Systems, p. 173.Google Scholar
  15. Grote, J. R., Syren, R. M., and Fox, S. W.: 1978,BioSystems 10, 287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hargreaves, W. R. and Deamer, D. W.: 1978a, in D. W. Deamer (ed.),Light Transducing Membranes, Structure, Function and Evolution, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Hargreaves, W. R. and Deamer, D. W.: 1978b,Biochem.,17, 3758.Google Scholar
  18. Hargreaves, W. R., Mulvihill, S. J., and Deamer, D. W.: 1977,Nature 266, 78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Heinz, B. and Ried, W.: 1980,Naturwiss.,67, 178.Google Scholar
  20. Herrera, A. L.: 1942,Science 96, 14.Google Scholar
  21. Jain, M. K. and Wagner, R. C.: 1980,Introduction to Biological Membranes, John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Kalienenko, V. O.: 1964,Microbiology (English ed.)33, 321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kenyon, D. H. and Nissenbaum, A.: 1976,J. Mol. Evol. 7, 245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Klein, R. A., Moore, M. J., and Smith, M. W.: 1971,Biochim. Biophys. Acta 233 420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Lahav, N., White, D., and Chang, S.: 1978,Science 201, 67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Lee, C. M., Lee, T. C., and Chichester, C. O.: 1977,Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 56A, 473.Google Scholar
  27. Lee, C. M., Lee, T. C., and Chichester, C. O.: 1979,Agr. and Food Chem.,27, 478.Google Scholar
  28. Mannino, R. J., Allebach, E. S., and Strohl, W. A.: 1979,FEBS Lett. 101, 229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Miller, S. L. and Orgel, L. E.: 1974,The Origins of Life on the Earth, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  30. Mitchell, P.: 1979,Science,206, 1148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Mizuno, T. and Weiss, A. H.: 1974, in R. S. Tipson and D. Horton (eds.),Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, vol. 29, Academic Press, New York, p. 173.Google Scholar
  32. Moore, S. J.: 1968,J. Biol. Chem. 243, 6281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Nissenbaum, A. Kenyon, D. H., and Oro, J.: 1975,J. Mol. Evol. 6, 253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Nooner, D. W., Gilbert, J. M., Gelpi, E., and Oró, J.: 1976,Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 40, 915.Google Scholar
  35. Oparin, A. L.: 1964The Chemical Evolution of Life, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill.Google Scholar
  36. Oparin, A. L.: 1968,Genesis and Evolutionary Development of Life, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  37. Overton, E.: 1896,Vjschr. Naturforsch. Ges. Zurich,41, 383.Google Scholar
  38. Paecht-Horowitz, M. and Lahav, N.: 1977,J. Mol. Evol. 10, 73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Pollock, G. E. and Heiderer, R.: 1979,J. Mol. Evol.,13, 253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Ponnamperuma, C. and Pering, K.: 1966,Nature 209, 979.Google Scholar
  41. Reeves, R. L.: 1962,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 84, 3332.Google Scholar
  42. Schwartz A. W. and Deuss, H.: 1971, in A. W. Schwartz (ed.),Theory and Experiment in Exobiology, Vol. 1, Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen, The Netherlands, p. 73.Google Scholar
  43. Shah, D. O.: 1972, in C. Ponnamperuma (ed.),Exobiology North-Holland, Amsterdam, p. 235.Google Scholar
  44. Shigemase, Y., Sakazawa, C., Nahashima, R., and Matsuura, T.: 1978, in H. Noda. (ed.),Origin of Life, Business Center for Academic Societies of Japan, Tokyo, p. 1.Google Scholar
  45. Sigma Chem. Co.: 1978, Tech. Bull. no. 510, St. Louis, Missouri.Google Scholar
  46. Somionescu, C., Denes, F., and Macoveanu, M.: 1973Biopolymers 12, 273.Google Scholar
  47. Smith, A. E., Silver, J. J., and Steinman, G.: 1968Experentia,24, 36.Google Scholar
  48. Stillwell, W.: 1976,BioSystems,8, 111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Stillwell, W.: 1980,Origins of Life 10, 277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Stillwell, W. and Winter, H. C.: 1974,Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 56, 617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Stillwell, W. and Winter, H. C.: 1975,BioOrg. Chem. 4, 317.Google Scholar
  52. Stillwell, W., Doram, K., and Karimi, S.: 1980,J. Memb. Sci. 8, 3.Google Scholar
  53. Sun, S. T., Hsang, C. C., Day, E. P., and Ho, J. T.: 1979Biochim. Biophys. Acta 557, 45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Tien, T. T.: 1974,Bilayer Lipid Membranes: Theory and Practice, Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  55. Tien, H. T. and Diana, A. L.: 1968,Chem. Phys. Lipids,2, 55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Weissmann, G., Sessa, G., and Weissmann, S.: 1966,Biochem. Pharmacol.,15, 1537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Wood, R. E., Wirth, E. P., and Morgan, H. E.: 1968,Biochim. Biophys. Acta 163, 171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Yanagawa, H., and Egami, F.: 1978, in H. Noda (ed.),Origin of Life, Business Center for Academic Societies of Japan, Tokyo, p. 385.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Co 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Stillwell
    • 1
  • Aruna Rau
    • 1
  1. 1.Biology DepartmentIndiana University-Purdue University at IndianapolisIndianapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations