Advertisement

Applied physics

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 365–375 | Cite as

On the mechanism of liquid metal electron and ion sources

  • R. Gomer
Invited Paper

Abstract

The mechanisms of electron and ion generation from Taylor cones of liquid metals are discussed. In the case of electron emission the vacuum arcing mechanism of Swanson and Schwind, which accounts for the observed high current repetitive pulsing is briefly reviewed. For ion emission mechanisms from onset to the high current regime are proposed. It is concluded that at onset ions are generated exclusively by field desorption. A theory to account for the observed emitter heating is advanced, and it is concluded that high currents result from field ionization of thermally evaporated atoms. It is shown that space charge becomes important even at very low ion currents and'is instrumental in providing stabilization in all regimes of ion emission.

PACS

82.65 79.40 68.70 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    D.S.Swatik, C.D.Hendricks: AIAA J.6, 1596 (1968)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.F.Mahoney, A.T.Yahiku, H.L.Daley, R.D.Moore, J.Perel: J. Appl. Phys.40, 5101 (1969)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    B.W.Colby, C.A.Evans, Jr.: Anal. Chem.45, 1887 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    V.E.Krohn, G.R.Ringo: Appl. Phys. Lett.27, 479 (1975)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.Clampitt, K.L.Aitken, D.K.Jefferies: J. Vac. Sci. Technol.12, 1208 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R.Clampitt, D.K.Jefferies: Nucl. Instrum. Methods149, 739 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R.Clampitt, D.K.Jefferies: Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser.38, 12 (1978)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    L.W.Swanson, G.A.Schwind: J. App. Phys. (in press)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G.I.Taylor: Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A280, 383 (1964)ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    L.W.Swanson: private communicationGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    L.W.Dolan, W.P.Dyke, J.K.Trolan: Phys. Rev.91, 1054 (1953)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    W.P.Dyke, J.K.Trolan, W.W.Dolan, G.Barnes: J. App. Phys.24, 570 (1953)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    E.W.Müller: Phys. Rev.102, 618 (1956)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R.Gomer: J. Chem. Phys.31, 341 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R.Gomer, L.W.Swanson: J. Chem. Phys.38, 1613 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    D.G.Brandon: InField Ion Microscopy, ed. by H.Hren and S.Ranganathan (Plenum Press, New York 1968) p. 28Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R.Gomer:Field Emission and Field Ionization (Harvard Press, Cambridge 1960)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    I.Langmuir, K.T.Compton: Rev. Mod. Phys.13, 191 (1931)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    H.S.W.Massey, H.B.Gilbody:Electronic and Ionic Impact Phenomena, Vol. 4 (Oxford Press, Oxford 1974)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A.W.Adamson:Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York 1976)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Gomer
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.The James Franck InstituteThe University of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.The Department of ChemistryThe University of ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations