Advertisement

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

, Volume 137, Issue 1, pp 1–8 | Cite as

Studies on the inhibitory effects of curcumin and eugenol on the formation of reactive oxygen species and the oxidation of ferrous iron

  • A. Ch. Pulla Reddy
  • Belur R. Lokesh
Article

Abstract

The spice principles curcumin (from turmeric) and eugenol (from cloves) are good inhibitors of lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation is known to be initiated by reactive oxygen species. The effect of curcumin and eugenol on the generation of reactive oxygen species in model systems were investigated. Both curcumin and eugenol inhibited superoxide anion generation in xanthine-xanthine oxidase system to an extent of 40% and 50% at concentrations of 75 μM and 250 μM respectively. Curcumin and eugenol also inhibited the generation of hydroxyl radicals (.OH) to an extent of 76% and 70% as measured by deoxyribose degradation. The.OH-radical formation measured by the hydroxylation of salicylate to 2,3-dihydroxy benzoate was inhibited to an extent of 66% and 46%, respectively, by curcumin and eugenol at 50 μM and 250 μM. These spice principles also prevented the oxidation of Fe2+ in Fentons reaction which generates.OH radicals.

Key words

hydroxyl radicals Fe2+ superoxide anions curcumin eugenol 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    O'Brien PJ: Oxidation of lipids in biological membranes and intracellular consequences. In: W.S. Chan (ed) Autooxidation of unsaturated lipids. Academic Press, New York, 1987, pp 233–280Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Steinberg D, Parthasarathy S, Crew TE, Khoo JC, Witztum JC: Beyond cholesterol: Modification of low density lipoproteins that increases its atherogenecity. N Engl J Med 320: 915–924, 1989Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ross R: The pathogenesis of artherosclerosis. An update. N Engl J Med 314: 488–520, 1986Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yagi K: A biochemical approach to atherogenesis. TIBS 11: 18–19, 1986Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Salmon JA: Role of arachidonic acid metabolites in inflammatory and thrombic responses. Biochem Soc Transactions 15:324–326, 1987Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fridovich S, Porter NA: Oxidation of Arachidonic acid in micelles by superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. J Biol Chem 156: 260–265, 1981Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Girotti AW, Thomas JP: Damaging effects of oxygen radicals on resealed erthyrocyte ghosts. J Biol Chem 259: 1744–1752, 1984Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    McCord JM, Day ED: Superoxide dependent production of hydroxyl radical catalyzed by Iron EDTA complex. FEBS Lett 86: 139–142, 1978Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC: Role of free radicals and catalytic metal ions in human disease. An overview. Methods Enzymol 186: 1–88, 1990Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schaich KM, Borg DC: Fenton reactions in lipid phases. Lipids 23: 570–577, 1988Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Minotti G, Aust SD: The role of iron in oxygen radical mediated lipid peroxidation. Chem Biol Inter 71: 1–19, 1989Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Minotti G, Aust SD: Rodox cycling of iron and lipid peroxidation. Lipids 27: 219–226, 1992Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ryan TP, Aust SD: The role of iron in oxygen mediated toxicities. Crit Rev Toxicol 22: 119–141, 1992Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Miller DM, Aust SD: Studies of Ascorbate-dependent, iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys 271: 113–119, 1989Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Minotti G, Aust SD: The requirement of iron (III) in the initiation of lipid peroxidation by iron (II) and hydrogen peroxide. J Biol Chem 262: 1098–1104, 1987Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Svingen BA, Buege JA, O'neal FO, Aust SD: Mechanism of NADPH dependent lipid peroxidation. J Biol Chem 254: 5892–5899, 1979Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gutteridge JMC: Lipid peroxidation: Some problems and concepts. In: B. Halliwell (ed) Oxygen radicals and tissue injury. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Bethesda, MD, 1988, pp 9–19Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pulla Reddy A.Ch., Lokesh BR: Studies on spice principles as antioxidants in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsomes. Mol Cell Biochem 111: 117–124, 1992Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Govindarajan VS: Turmeric-chemistry, technology and quality. CRC Rev Food Sci Nutr 12: 199–301, 1980Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Srimal RC: Curcumin a modern drug. Indian Spices 30: 21–25, 1993Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Deodhar SD, Sethi R, Srimal RC: Preliminary study on antirheumatic activity of curcumin (diferulolyl methane). Ind J Med Res 71: 632–634, 1980Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Huang MT, Lysz T, Ferraro T, Abidi TF, Laskin JD, Coney AH: Inhibitory effects of curcumin onin vitro lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activities in mouse epidermis. Cancer Res 51: 813–819, 1991Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Leela Srinivas, Shalini VK, Shylaja M: Turmerin: A water soluble antioxidant peptide from turmeric (Cucuma longa). Arch Biochem Biophys 292: 617–623, 1992Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Aruna K, Srivaramakrishnan VM: Plant products as protective agents against cancer. Ind J Exp Biol 28: 1008–1011, 1990Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    WattsA, Peterson RC: Pulpal response to a zinc oxide-eugenol cement. Int Endodont J 20: 82–86, 1987Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Flohe L, Otting H: Superoxide dismutase assays. Methos Enzymol 105: 93–104, 1984Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC: Formation of a thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances from deoxyribose in the presence of iron salts. FEBS Lett 128: 347–352, 1981Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC: Role of iron in oxygen radical reactions. Methods Enzymol 105: 47–56, 1984Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tien M, Morehouse LA, Bucher JR, Aust SD: The multiple effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetate in several model lipid peroxidation systems. Arch Biochem Biophys 218: 450–458, 1982Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Robak J, Gryglewski RJ: Flavonoids are scavengers of superoxide anions. Biochem Pharmacol 37: 2837–2841, 1988Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Elizabeth K, Rao MNA: Effect of curcumin on hydroxyl radical generation through Fenton reaction. Int J Pharmaceutics 57: 173–176, 1989Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Elizabeth K, Rao MNA: Oxygen radical scavenging activity of curcumin. Int J Pharmaceutics 58: 237–240, 1990Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Srivastava R: Inhibition of neutrophil response by curcumin. Agents Actions 28: 298–303, 1989Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    McCord JM: Free radicals and inflammation: Protection of synovial fluid by superoxide dismutase. Science 185: 529–531, 1974Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Asthana OP: Annual Report, Central Drug Research Institute, India, 1992–93, p 58Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Miller DM, Grover TA, Nayini N, Aust SD: Xanthine oxidase-and iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys 301: 1–7, 1993Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rice-Evans C, Burdon R: Free radical-lipid interactions and their pathological consequences. Prog Lipid Res 32: 71–110, 1993Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nagashima K: Inhibitory effect of eugenol on Cu2+-catalyzed lipid peroxidation in human erythrocyte membranes. Int J Biochem 21: 745–749, 1989Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nagababu E, Lakshmaiah N: Inhibitory effect of Eugenol on non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in rat liver mitochondria. Biochem Pharmacol 43: 2392–2400, 1992Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sreejayan, Rao MNA: Curcumin inhibits iron dependent lipid peroxidation. nt J Pharmaceutics 100: 93–97, 1993Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schaich KM: Free radical and metal complexing activity of curcumin compounds from turmeric. AOCS Annual meeting Abstracts, INFORM 4: 529, 1993, p 8Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Thonnesen HH, Greenhill JV: Studies on curcumin and curcuminoids. XXII. Curcumin as a reducing agent and radical scavenger. Int J Pharmaceutics 87: 79–87, 1992Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pulla Reddy A Ch, Lokesh BR: Alterations in lipid peroxides in rat liver by dietary n-3 fatty acids: Modulation of antioxidant enzymes by curcumin, eugenol, and vitamin E. J Nutr Biochem 5: 181–188, 1994Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Ch. Pulla Reddy
    • 1
  • Belur R. Lokesh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and NutritionCentral Food Technological Research InstituteMysoreIndia

Personalised recommendations