Advertisement

International Journal of Family Therapy

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 187–206 | Cite as

The family of later life: Strategies and interventions

  • Lee Hyer
  • Steven L. Hawthorne
Article
  • 57 Downloads

Abstract

The concerns of the family of later life have only recently become evident. Unlike other age groups, when problems of an elder surface, they almost always involve other family members. Family members tend to become highly involved, alter their lives, and offer support. All this provides a ready condition for family pathology to assert itself. Accordingly, three common strategies used by families of later life are presented and discussed. The effect on the whole family system is stressed. Also, two therapeutic interventions are presented. Since problems related to elders are particularly resistant to therapy, these two interventions are designed for “well” family members. Case material is presented.

Keywords

Family Member Health Psychology Therapeutic Intervention Social Issue Ready Condition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackerman, N.The psychodynamics of family life, New York, Basic Books, 1958.Google Scholar
  2. Barnes, R., Raskind, M., Scott, M., & Murphy, C. Problems of families caring for Alzheimer patients: Use of a support group.Journal of the American Ceriatrics Society, 1981,29, 80–85.Google Scholar
  3. Bateson, G., Jackson, D., Haley, J., & Weakland, J. Towards a theory of schizophrenia,Behavioral Science, 1956,1, 251–264.Google Scholar
  4. Beavers, W.Psychotherapy and growth: Family systems perspective. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1977.Google Scholar
  5. Bengston, V. & Cutler, N. Generation and inter-generational relations: Perspectives on age groups and social change. In R. Binstock & E. Shanas (Eds.),Handbook of aging and the social science. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1976.Google Scholar
  6. Birren, J., & Sloane, R.Handbook of mental health and aging. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1980.Google Scholar
  7. Blazer, D. The epidemiology of mental illness in later life. In E. W. Busse, & D. Blazen (Eds.),Handbook of geriatric psychiatry, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1980.Google Scholar
  8. Blazer, D.Depression in late life. St. Louis: Mosby, 1982.Google Scholar
  9. Blazer, D., & Maddox, G. Using epidemiological survey data to plan geriatric mental health services.Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 1982,33, 42–45.Google Scholar
  10. Blenkner, M. Social work and family relationships in later life with some thoughts on filial maturity. In E. Shanas & G. Streib (Eds.),Social Structure and the family: Generational relations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1965.Google Scholar
  11. Boszormenyi-Nagy, I. & Spark, G.Invisible loyalties, New York: Harper & Row, 1973.Google Scholar
  12. Bowen, M. The use of family theory in clinical practice.Comprehensive Psychiatry, 19667, 345–374.Google Scholar
  13. Brink, T. L.Ceriatric psychotherapy, New York: Human Sciences Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  14. Busse, E., & Blazer, D.Handbook of geriatric psychiatry, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1980.Google Scholar
  15. Carter, E., & McGoldrick, M.The family life cycle: A framework for family therapy. New York: Gardner Press, Inc., 1980.Google Scholar
  16. Chiriboga, D., & Cutler, L. Stress and adaptation: Life span perspectives. In L. Poon (Ed.),Aging in the 1980s: Psychological Issues. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association, 1980.Google Scholar
  17. Fisher, L., Anderson, A., & Jones, J. Types of paradoxical intervention and indications/contraindications for use in clinical practice.Family Process, 1980,20, 25–35.Google Scholar
  18. Ford, F., & Herrick, J. Family rules: Family life styles.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1974,44, 61–69.Google Scholar
  19. Framo, J. The integration of marital therapy with sessions with the family of origin. In A. Gurman & D. Kniskern (Eds.),Handbook of family therapy, New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1981.Google Scholar
  20. Frankl, V. E. Paradoxical intention and deflection: Two logotherapeutic techniques. In S. Arieti, & G. Chrzanowski (Eds.),New dimensions in psychiatry: A world view, New York: Wiley, 1975.Google Scholar
  21. Gallagher, D., & Thompson, L.Depression in the elderly: A behavioral treatment manual. Los Angeles: The University of Southern California Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  22. George, L. Social support and institutionalization. Paper presented at the Meeting of Older American Resources and Services, Duke University Medical School, Durham N.C., March, 1980.Google Scholar
  23. Hagested, G. Problems and promises in the social psychology of inter-generational relations. Paper presented at Workshop on Stability and Change in the Family sponsored by the Committee on Aging, National Research Council, Annapolis, Md., March, 1979.Google Scholar
  24. Haley, J.Problem-solving therapy, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1976.Google Scholar
  25. Hays-Bautista, D., Coaches, arbitrators, and access to medical care.Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1979,20, 52–60.Google Scholar
  26. Headley, L.Adults and their parents in family therapy: A new direction in treatment. New York: Plenum, 1977.Google Scholar
  27. Herr, J., & Weakland, J.Counseling elders and their families: Practical techniques for applied gerontology, New York: Springer, 1979.Google Scholar
  28. Herr, J., & Weakland, J. Communication with family systems: Growing older within and with the double bind. In P. K. Ragan (Ed.),Aging parents. Los Angeles: USC Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  29. Hussian, R.Geriatric psychology: A behavioral perspective. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1981.Google Scholar
  30. Hyer, L., & Blazer, D. Depression in long-term care facilities. In D. Blazer (Ed.),Depression in late life, St. Louis: Mosby, 1982.Google Scholar
  31. Jackson, D. The study of the family.Family Process, 1965,4, 1–19.Google Scholar
  32. Jessee, E., & L'Abate, L. The use of paradox with children in an inpatient treatment setting.Family Process, 1980,19, 59–64.Google Scholar
  33. Kahn, R. Aging and social support. In M. Riley (Ed.),Aging from birth to death, interdisciplinary perspectives. Boulder, Colorado, Western Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  34. LaWall, J. Conjoint therapy of psychiatric problems in the elderly.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 1981,26, 89–91.Google Scholar
  35. Lowenthal, M. F., & Robinson, B. Social networks and solution. In R. Binstock, & E. Shanas (Eds.),Handbook of aging and the social sciences. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1976.Google Scholar
  36. Lyons, W. Enhancing possibilities of client and caregiver satisfaction through the admission process to institutional care. Presented at Gerontological Society of America and Canadian Association of Gerontology, November 9, 1981.Google Scholar
  37. Mace, N., & Rabins, P.Family handbook: A guide for the families of persons with declining intellectual function, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementias. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 1980.Google Scholar
  38. McCullough, P. Launching children and moving on. In E. Carter & M. McGoldrick (Eds.),The Family life cycle: A framework for family therapy New York: Gardner Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  39. Meyer, P. Between families: The unattached young adult. In E. Carter & M. McGoldrick (Eds.),The family life cycle: A framework for family therapy. New York: Gardner Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  40. Miller, M. B., Bernstein, H., & Sharkey, H. Family extrusion of the aged patients: Family homeostasis and sexual conflict.The Gerontologist, 1975,15, 291–296.Google Scholar
  41. Mozdierz, G., Maccitelli, F., & Lisiecki, J. The paradox in psychotherapy: An Adlerian perspective.Journal of Individual Psychology, 1976,32, 169–184.Google Scholar
  42. Papp, P. The Greek chorus and other techniques of paradoxical therapy.Family Process, 1980,19, 45–48.Google Scholar
  43. Ragan, P.Aging parents. Los Angeles: USC Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  44. Rakowski, W., & Hickey T. Geriatric patients and family resource persons: Examining congruence of health beliefs and temporal perspective. Paper presented at the joint meeting of the Gerontological Society of America and the Canadian Association on Gerontology, Toronto, Ontario, November, 1981.Google Scholar
  45. Raskin, D., & Klein, Z. Loving a symptom through keeping it: A review of paradoxical treatment techniques and rationale.Archives of General Psychiatry, 1976,33, 548–555.Google Scholar
  46. Reifler, B., Cox, G., & Hanley, R. Problems of mentally ill elderly as perceived by patients, families, and clinicians.The Gerontologist, 1981,21, 2, 165–170.Google Scholar
  47. Reifler, B. Diagnosis and treatment of mental illness in the elderly. Paper presented at the Department of Psychiatry Grand Rounds, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, January, 1982.Google Scholar
  48. Riskin, J. Methodology for studying family interaction.Archives of General Psychiatry, 1963,8, 343–348.Google Scholar
  49. Satir, V.Conjoint family therapy. Palo Alto, California: Science and Behavior Books, 1964.Google Scholar
  50. Selvini Palazzoli, M., Boscolo, M., Cecchin, G., & Prata, G. Hypothesizing-circulating-neutrality: Three guidelines for the conductor of the session.Family Process, 1980,19, 3–12.Google Scholar
  51. Shanas, E. The family as a social support system in old age.The Gerontologist, 1979,19, 169–174.Google Scholar
  52. Shanas, E., & Maddox, G. Aging, health, and the organization of health resources. In R. H. Binstock & E. Shanas (Eds.),Handbook of aging and the social sciences. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1976.Google Scholar
  53. Siegler, I., & Hyer, L. Common crises in the family life of older persons. In D. Blazer & I. Siegler (Eds.),A family approach to health care of the elderly. Boston: Addison Wesley, in press.Google Scholar
  54. Silverstone, B., & Hyman, H.You and your aging parent. New York: Pantheon Books, 1976.Google Scholar
  55. Sluzki, C. Marital therapy from a systems theory perspective. In T. Paolino & B. McCrady (Eds.),Marriage and marital therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1978.Google Scholar
  56. Steinman, L. Reactivated conflicts in the aging parents. In P. Ragan (Ed.),Aging Parents. Los Angeles: USC Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  57. Stuart, R. An operant interpersonal program for couples. In D. H. Olson (Eds.),Treating relationships. Lake Mills, Iowa. Graphic Publishing Company, Inc., 1976.Google Scholar
  58. Tobin, S., & Lieberman, M.Last home for the aged. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1976.Google Scholar
  59. Treas, J. Family support systems for the aged: Some social and demographic considerations.The Gerontologist, 1977,17, 486–591.Google Scholar
  60. Ward, R. Limitations of the family as a supportive institution in the lives of the aged.Family Coordinator, 1978,27, 365–374.Google Scholar
  61. Weakland, J. Pursuing the evident into schizophrenia and beyond. In M. Berger (Ed.),Beyound the double bind: Communication and family systems, theories, and techniques with schizophrenics. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1978.Google Scholar
  62. Wynne, L. Methodologic and conceptual issues in the study of schizophrenics and their families. In D. Rosenthal & S. Kety (Eds.),The transmission of schizophrenia. New York: Pergamon Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  63. Zarit, S.Aging and mental disorders: Psychological approaches to assessment and treatment. New York: Free Press, 1980.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lee Hyer
    • 1
  • Steven L. Hawthorne
    • 2
  1. 1.Psychology ServiceVA Medical CenterAugusta
  2. 2.Family Studies Program, Department of PsychiatryDuke University Medical CenterDurham

Personalised recommendations