This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Abramowitz, S. L. (1974). Research on internal-external control and social political activism.Psychological Reports, 34, 619–621.
Ahlbrandt, R. S., Jr., & Brophy, P. C. (1975).Neighborhood revitalization: Theory and practice. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Ahlbrandt, R. S., & Cunningham, J. V. (1979).A new public policy for neighborhood preservation. New York: Praeger.
Aiello, J. R., & Baum, A. (Eds.). (1979).Residential crowding and design. New York: Plenum Press.
Aldwin, D. F., & Hauser, R. M. (1975). The decompsition of effects in path analysis.American Sociological Review, 40, 37–47.
Altshuler, A. A. (1970).Community control: The black demand for participation in large American cities. New York: Pegasus.
Asher, H. B. (1983).Causal modeling (2nd ed.). Beverly Hills: Sage.
Bachrach, K., & Zautra, A. (1985). Coping with a community stressor: The threat of a hazardous waste facility.Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 26, 127–141.
Bandura, A. (1986).Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Baum, A., Singer, J. E., & Baum, C. S. (1981). Stress and the environment.Journal of Social Issues, 37, 4–35.
Bellah, R. N., Madsen, R., Sullivan, W. M. Swidler, A., & Tipton, S. M. (1985).Habits of the heart: Individualism and committment in American life. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bentler, P. M. (1980). Multivariate analysis with latent variables: Casual modeling.Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 419–456.
Berck, P. L., & Williams, L. J. (1980).The neighborhood organization: An emprical examination of psychosocial support. Unpublished manuscript, Indiana/Purdue University, Indianapolis.
Bradford, C., & Marino, D. (1977).Redlining and disinvestment as a discriminatory practice in residential mortgage loans. Report prepared for Office of the Assistant Secretary for Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Brower, S. (1980). Territory in urban settings. In I. Altman, A. Rapaport, & J. Wohwill (Eds.),Human behavior and environment, New York: Plenum Press.
Brown, B. B. (1987). Territoriality. In D. Stokols & I. Altman (Eds.),Handbook of environmental psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 505–531). New York: Wiley.
Chavis, D. M., Hogge, J. H., McMillan, D. W., & Wandersman, A. (1986). Sense of community through Brunswik's lens: A first look.Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 24–40.
Chavis, D. M., & Newbrough, J. R. (1986). The meaning of “community” in Community Psychology.Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 335–340.
Chavis, D. M., & Wandersman, A. (1986). Roles for research and the researcher in neighborhood development. In R. B. Taylor (Ed.),Urban neighborhoods: Research and policy (pp. 215–249). New York: Praeger.
Churchman, A. (1987). Can resident participation in neighborhood rehabilitation programs succeed? Israel's project renewal through a comparative perspective. In I. Altman & A. Wandersman (Eds.),Neighborhood and community environments (pp. 113–162). New York: Plenum Press.
Clay, P. L. (1979).Neighborhood renewal. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.
Cohen, E. (1976). The structural transformation of the kibbutz. In G. K. Zollchan & W. Hirsh (Eds.),Social change (pp. 689–732). New York: Wiley.
Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1975).Applied multiple regression. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Cohen, S., & Sherrod, D. R. (1978). When density matters: Environmental control as a determinant of crowding effects in laboratory and residential settings. In L. Severy (Ed.),Crowding: Theoretical and research implications for population-environment psychology. New York: Human Sciences.
Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (1979).Quasi-experimentation: Design and analysis issues for field settings. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Crenson, M. A. (1978). Social networks and political processes in urban neighborhoods.American Journal of Political Science, 22, 578–594.
Curtis, L. A. (Ed.). (1987). Policies to prevent crime: Neighborhood, family and employment strategies.Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 494, 9–168.
Durkheim, E. (1947).The division of labor in society (G. Simpson, Trans.). New York: Free Press of Glencoe. (original work published 1893)
Florin, P. (1989).Nurturing the grassroots: Neighborhood volunteer organizations and America's cities. New York: Citizens Committee for New York City.
Florin, P., Friedmann, R. R., Wandersman, A., & Meier, R. (1987).Cognitive social learning variables and behavior: Cross-cultural similarities in person x situation interaction. Unpublished manuscript, University of Rhode Island.
Florin, P., & Wandersman, A. (1984). Cognitive social learning and participation in community development. A comparison of standard and cognitive social learning variables.American Journal of Community Psychology, 12, 689–708.
Freedman, J. L. (1975).Crowding and behavior. New York: Viking.
Fried, M. (1984). The structure and significance of community satisfaction.Population and Environment, 7, 61–86.
Froland, C., Pancoast, D. C., Chapman, N. J., & Kimboko, P. J. (1981).Helping networks and human services. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Goetze, R. (1979).Understanding neighborhood change. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
Gordon, I. J. (1975).Human development: A transactional perspective. New York: Harper & Row.
Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The strength of weak ties.American Journal of Sociology, 78, 1360–1380.
Green, L. W. (1986). The theory of participation: A qualitative analysis of its expression in national and international health policies.Advances in Health Education and Promotion, 1(A), 211–236.
Greenberg, S. W., & Rohe (1986). Informal social control and crime prevention in modern urban neighborhoods. In R. B. Taylor (Ed.),Urban neighborhoods: Research and policy. New York: Praeger.
Gusfield, J. R. (1975).Community: A critical response. New York: Harper Colophon Books.
Hallman, H. (1974).Neighborhood government in metropolitan settings. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Hallman, H. W. (1984).Neighborhoods: Their place in urban life. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Heise, D. R. (1975).Casual analysis. New York: Wiley.
Heller, K. (1989). The return to community.American Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 1–15.
Hunter, A. (1974).Symbolic communities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kessler, R. C., & Greenberg, D. F. (1981).Linear panel analysis: Models of quantitative change. New York: Academic Press.
Kieffer, C. H. (1984, January). Citizen empowerment: A development perspective. In J. Rappaport & R. Hess (Eds.),Studies in empowerment: Steps toward understanding and action (pp. 9–36). New York: Haworth.
Langer, E. J. (1983).The psychology of control. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Lavrakas, P. J. (1980).Factors related to citizen involvement in personal, household and neighborhood anti-crime measures: An executive summary. Chicago: Northwestern University Center for Urban affairs.
Levenson, H. (1974). Activism and powerful others: Distinctions within the concept of internal-external control.Journal of Personality Assessment, 38, 377–383.
Lewis, D. A., & Salem, G. (1981). Community crime prevention: An analysis of a developing perspective.Crime and Delinquency, 27, 405–421.
Maton, K. I., & Rappaport, J. (1984). Empowerment in a religious setting: A multivariate investigation. In J. Rappaport & R. Hess (Eds.),Studies in empowerment: Steps toward understanding action (pp. 37–72). New York: Haworth.
Mayer, N. S. (1984).Neighborhood organizations and community development. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.
Merry, S. E. (1987). Crowding, conflict, and neighborhood regulation. In I. Altman & A. Wandersman (Eds.),Neighborhood and community environments, (pp. 35–68). New York: Plenum Press.
McMillan, D. W., & Chavis, D. M. (1986). Sense of community: A definition and theory.Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 6–23.
Morris, D. E., & Hess, K. (1975).Neighborhood power: The new localism. Boston: Beacon.
Moynihan, D. P. (1986).Family and nation. San Diego: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.
Naparstek, A. J., Biegal, D. E., & Spiro, H. R. (1982).Neighborhood networks for humane mental health care. New York: Plenum Press.
Newbrough, J. R., & Chavis, D. M. (Eds.). (1986a). Psychological Sense of Community, I: Theory and concepts.Journal of Community Psychology, 14(1).
Newbrough, J. R., & Chavis, D. M. (Eds.). (1986b). Psychological Sense of community, II: Research and applications.Journal of Community Psychology, 14(4).
Newman, O. (1972).Defensible space. New York: Macmillan.
Nunnally, J. (1978).Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.
Pearce, D. M. (1979). Gatekeepers and homeseekers: Institutional factors in racial steering.Social Problems, 26, 2325–2342.
Perkins, D. D., Florin, P., Rich, R. C., Wandersman, A., & Chavis, D. M. (1990). Participation and the social and physical environment of residential blocks: Crime and community context.American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 83–116.
Perlman, J. E. (1976). Grassrooting the system.Social Policy, 7(2), 4–20.
Pol, L. G., Guy, R. F., & Bush, A. J. (1982). Discrimination in the home lending market: A macro perspective.Social Science Quarterly, 63, 716–728.
Prestby, J. E., Wandersman, A., Florin, P., Rich, R. & Chavis, D. M. (1990). Benefits, costs, incentive management and participation in voluntary organizations: A means to understanding and promoting empowerment.American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 117–150.
Rappaport, J. (1977).Community psychology: Values, research, and action. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
Rappaport, J. (1981). In praise of paradox: A social policy of empowerment over prevention.American Journal of Community Psychology, 9, 1–26.
Rappaport, J. (1987). Terms of empowerment/exemplars of prevention: Toward a theory for community psychology.American Journal of Community Psychology, 15, 1–25.
Rich, R. C. (1979). The roles of neighborhood organizations in urban service delivery.Urban Affairs Papers, 1, 81–93.
Rohe, W. M. (1985). Urban planning and mental health. In A. Wandersman & R. Hess (Eds.),Beyond the individual: Environmental approaches and prevention. New York: Haworth.
Sarason, S. B. (1974).The psychological sense of community: Prospects for a community psychology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Seligman, M. (1975).Helplessness: On depression, development and death. San Francisco: Freeman.
Skogan, W. G., & Maxfield, M. G. (1981).Coping with crime. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Suttles, G. D. (1972).The social construction of community. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Swift, C., & Levin, G. (1987). Empowerment: An emerging mental health technology.Journal of Primary Prevention, 7, 242–265.
Taylor, R. B. (1982). The neighborhood physical environment and stress. In G. W. Evans (Ed.),Environmental stress (pp. 286–324). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Taylor, R. B. (1988).Human territorial functioning: An empirical evolutionary perspective on individual and small group territorial cognitions, behaviors and consequences. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Thoits, P. A. (1982). Life stress, social support, and psychological vulnerability: Epidemiological considerations.Journal of Community Psychology, 10, 341–362.
Unger, D. G., & Wandersman, A. (1982). Neighboring in an urban environment.American Journal of Community Psychology, 10, 493–509.
Unger, D. G., & Wandersman, A. (1983). Neighboring and its role in block organizations: An exploratory report.American Journal of Community Psychology, 11, 291–300.
Unger, D. G., & Wandersman, A. (1985). The importance of neighbors: The social, cognitive, and affective components of neighboring.American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 139–170.
Wandersman, A., Andrews, A., Riddle, D., & Fancett, C. (1983). Environmental psychology and prevention. In R. Felner, S. Farber, L. Jason, & J. Moritsugu (Eds.),Preventive psychology: Theory, research and practice (pp. 104–127). New York: Pergamon.
Wandersman, A., & Florin, P. (1981). A cognitive social learning approach to the crossroads of cognition, social behavior, and the environment. In J. H. Harvey (Ed.),Cognition, social behavior, and the environment (pp. 393–408). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Wandersman, A., & Giamartino, G. (1980). Community and individual differences characteristics as influences on initial participation.American Journal of Community Psychology, 8, 217–228.
Wandersman, A., Jakubs, J. F., & Giamartino, G. A. (1981). Participation in block organizations.Journal of Community Action, 1, 40–48.
Wandersman, A., Unger, D., Florin, P., & Chavis, D. M. (in preparation).Impacts of small-scale community development associations.
Weidemann, S., & Anderson, J. R. (1985). A conceptual framework for residential satisfaction. In I. Altman & C. M. Werner (Eds.),Home environments. New York: Plenum Press.
Wellman, B. (1981). Applying network analysis to the study of support in B. H. Gottlieb (Ed.),Social networks and social support (pp. 156–198). Beverly Hills: Sage.
Wellman, B. (1979). The community question: The intimate networks of East Yorkers.American Journal of Sociology, 84, 1201–1231.
Yates, D. T. (1973).Neighborhood democracy: The politics and impact of decentralization. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Yin, R. K. (1977). Goals for citizen involvement: Some possibilities and some evidence. In P. Marshall (Ed.),Citizen participation certification for community development. Washington, DC: NAHRO
Zimmerman, M. A. (in press). Empowerment: Forging new perspectives in mental health. In J. Rappaport & E. Seidman (Eds.),Handbook of community psychology. New York: Plenum Press.
Zimmerman, M. A., & Rappaport, J. (1988). Citizen participation, perceived control, and psychological empowerment.American Journal of Community Psychology, 16, 725–750.
This research was funded, in part, by a National Science Foundation grant #BNS-78-08827 to the Center for Community Studies, John F. Kennedy Center for Research on Education and Human Development, George Peabody College, Nashville, Tennessee. The authors thank Paul Florin, Robert Innes, Barry Lee, J. R. Newbrough, and Richard Rich for their comments on earlier versions of this paper.
About this article
Cite this article
Chavis, D.M., Wandersman, A. Sense of community in the urban environment: A catalyst for participation and community development. Am J Commun Psychol 18, 55–81 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00922689
- Social Psychology
- Health Psychology
- Urban Environment
- Community Development