, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 345–352 | Cite as

Metabolic activity in human alveolar macrophages increases after cessation of smoking

  • C. M. Sköld
  • J. Forslid
  • A. Eklund
  • J. Hed
Original Articles


Alveolar macrophages (AMs) were recruited by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from human smokers before and one, three, and six months after smoking cessation. The metabolic activity of the AM was quantified as luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) both at rest and after in vitro stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The resting CL values did not differ before and after smoking cessation. The activity after PMA stimulation was unaltered at one and three months. However, the maximal metabolic response, as well as the rate, were significantly (P < 0.02 andP < 0.01, respectively) higher at six months, compared to prior smoking cessation. In addition, the time to reach the maximal peak was reduced after six smoke-free months, indicating a more rapid cell activation. The cell concentration in the BAL-fluid decreased (P < 0.001) as soon as after one smoke-free month and remained low at the following lavages. The lower metabolic response one and three months after smoking cessation, and the increased response six months after, together with a rapid normalization of the cell concentration in the BAL fluid, may be explained by the persistence of tobacco-smoke particles in the alveolar space, which could influence cell activity.


Smoking Cessation Metabolic Activity Cell Concentration Alveolar Macrophage Bronchoalveolar Lavage 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. M. Sköld
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. Forslid
    • 2
  • A. Eklund
    • 1
  • J. Hed
    • 2
  1. 1.Departments of Thoracic MedicineKarolinska HospitalStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Departments of Clinical ImmunologyKarolinska HospitalStockholmSweden

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