International Ophthalmology

, Volume 16, Issue 4–5, pp 299–303 | Cite as

Self-tonometry: technical aspects of calibration and clinical application

  • S. Groenhoff
  • J. Draeger
  • C. Deutsch
  • R. Wiezorrek
  • B. Hock
Section 6: Intraocular Pressure


Self-tonometry could be established as an important diagnostic tool in the early diagnosis and follow-up of glaucoma provided that a self-tonometer is precise, safe and easy to use. Furthermore, it has to comply with the legal standards for tonometer calibration. A new software-controlled detection system for the self tonometer permits the evaluation of external factors during the measurement which influence the precision of the tonometric readings. The updated version of the self-tonometer (ST) was compared to the Draeger hand-held applanation tonometer (HAT) in a clinical study with 82 patients (151 eyes). The results show a regression line characterized by a slope of 0.99, an y interception of 1.41, a correlation coefficient of 0.96 and a standard deviation for the ST readings of ±1.78 mmHg. Self-tonometry improves the IOP monitoring as well as patient compliance and therefore is a potential diagnostic tool in the management of glaucoma.

Key words

error detection system optical sensor self-tonometer self-tonometry 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    World Health Organization (WHO). Self-measurement of blood pressure. Bull WHO 1988; 66: 155–9.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Hypertension League: Self-measurement of blood pressure. J Hypertens 1988; 6: 257–61.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Draeger J. Fortschritte bei der Früherkennung und Ver-laufskontrolle des Glaukoms. Klin Monatsb Augenheilk 1989; 195: 330.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Leydhecker W. The IOP. Clinical aspects. Ann Ophthalmol 1976; 8: 389–99.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sampaolesi R. Curva diària de presiòn. In: El glaucoma. Med Panamericana 1974: 175–90.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Drance SM. The significance of the diurnal phasic variation of the IOP in normal and glaucomatous eyes. Arch Ophthalmol1960; 64: 494–500.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Duke-Elder S. The phasic variation of the IOP in primary glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol 1952; 35:1–20.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Posner A. Home use of the applanometer as an aid in the management of glaucoma. Eye & Ear Nose Throat Mon 1965; 44: 64–6.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jensen AD, Maumenee AE. Home tonometry. Am J Ophthalmol 1976; 76: 929–32.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alpar J. The use of home tonometry in the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma. Glaucoma 1983;5: 130–2.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Draeger J. Über ein lageunabhängiges Applanationstonometer. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilk 1965; 149: 905–11.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Draeger J, Groenhoff S. Selbsttonometrie-Technische Möglichkeiten und klinische Bedeutung. Fortschr Ophthalmol 1990; 87: 688–91.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zeimer RC, Wilensky JT. An instrument for self-measurement of IOP. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1982; 29: 178–83.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wilensky JT, Gieser DK, Mori MT, Langenberg PW, Zeimer RC. Self-tonometry to manage patients with glaucoma and apparently controlled IOP. Arch Ophthalmol 1987; 105: 1072–5.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Draeger J, Hechler B, Levedag S, Wirt H. Über die automatische Messung des Augeninnendrucks mit einem elekironischen Sensortonometer. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilk 1987; 190: 539–41.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Draeger J, Schwanz R, Deutsch C, Groenhoff S. Experi-mentelle und klinische Ergebnisse mit einem neuen vollautomatischen Selbsttonometer. Fortschr Ophthalmol 1991; 88: 304–7.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Deutsch C, Draeger J, Groenhoff S. 2 Jahre Selbsttonometrie-Akzeptanz und Ergebnisse. Fortschr Ophthalmol 1992.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Draeger J, Groenhoff S, Hock B, Klemm M. Optimierung des automatischen Selbsttonometers durch ein akustisches Kontrollsignal and eine verbesserte Fixieroptik. Fortschr Ophthalmol 1992.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Weigelin E, Jessen K. Tonometereichung. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilk 1981; 179: 1–12.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Draeger J, Wiezorrek R, Hock B. Physikalisch-technische Kalibration des automatischen Selbsttonometers. Fortschr Ophthalmol, 1981.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wirt H, Draeger J, Rumberger E, Deutsch C, Dauper J. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Kalibrierung neuartiger elektronisch-automatischer Tonometer. Fortschr Ophthalmol 1989; 8: 403–6.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Groenhoff
    • 1
  • J. Draeger
    • 1
  • C. Deutsch
    • 1
  • R. Wiezorrek
    • 1
  • B. Hock
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of HamburgHamburg 20Germany

Personalised recommendations