Advertisement

Journal of Clinical Immunology

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 214–222 | Cite as

The influence of age, race, and gender on peripheral blood mononuclear-cell subsets in healthy nonsmokers

  • D. J. Tollerud
  • J. W. Clark
  • L. Morris Brown
  • C. Y. Neuland
  • L. K. Pankiw-Trost
  • W. A. Blattner
  • R. N. Hoover
Original Articles

Abstract

To investigate the influence of age, race, and gender on the cellular immune system, we determined T-cell, B-cell, monocyte, natural killer (NK)-cell, and HLA-DR+-cell subsets in 266 nonsmokers from a population-based random sample of healthy adults using monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. Blacks had a lower total white blood-cell count than whites (P≤0.0001), due primarily to a decrease in granulocytes. There was no significant difference in absolute lymphocyte count between blacks and whites. Blacks had a higher proportion of CD19+ cells (Leu 12+ B cells) and a lower proportion of CD3+ cells (OKT3+ T cells) than whites (P≤0.01). Female sex and increasing age were independently associated with an increased percentage of CD4+ cells (OKT4A+ helper-inducer T-cell subset), resulting in a higher helper/suppressor ratio among women and older individuals (P≤0.05). Black race and increasing age were independently associated with an increased proportion of HLA-DR+ cells (P≤0.0001) which was not attributable to B cells or monocytes. No significant age, race, or gender effects were observed for CD14+ cells (Leu M3+ monocytes) or CD16+ cells (Leu 11A+ natural killer cells). These data demonstrate that age, race, and gender are each associated with significant differences in peripheral blood monouclear-cell subsets. Population-based data such as these provide an important foundation for future design and interpretation of human flow cytometry data.

Key words

Lymphocyte subsets normal values flow cytometry age race gender 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ault KA: Clinical applications of fluorescence activated cell sorting techniques. Diag Immunol 1:2–15, 1983Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schlossman SF, Reinholz EL: Human T-cell subsets in health and disease. Springer Semin Immunopathol 7:9–16, 1984Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mascart-Lemone F, Delespesse G, Servais G, Kunstler M: Characterization of immunoregulatory T lymphocytes during aging by monoclonal antibodies. Clin Exp Immunol 48:148–154, 1982Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schwab R, Staiano-Coico L, Weksler ME: Immunologic studies of aging IX. Quantitative differences in T lymphocytes subsets in young and old individuals. Diag Immunol 1:195–202, 1983Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bongers V, Bertrams J: The influence of common variables on T-cell subset analysis by monoclonal antibodies. J Immunol Methods 67:243–253, 1984Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    LaVia MF, Hurtubise PE, Parker JW. T-lymphocyte subset phenotypes: A multisite evaluation of normal subjects and patients with AIDS. Diag Immunol 3:75–80, 1985Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lifson JD, Finch SL, Sasaki DT, Engleman EG. Variables affecting T-lymphocyte subsets in a volunteer blood donor population. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 36:151–160, 1985Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Matsumoto K, Okubo K, Yokoyama MM: Distribution of marker-specific lymphocyte subsets in healthy human subjects. J Clin Lab Immunol 16:143–147, 1985Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ohta Y, Fujiwara K, Nishi T, Oka H: Normal values of peripheral lymphocyte populations and T-cell subsets at a fixed time of day: A flow cytometric analysis with monoclonal antibodies in 210 healthy adults. Clin Exp Immunol 64:146–149, 1986Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Strong DM, Ortaldo JR, Pandolfi F, Maluish A, Herberman RB: Cryopreservation of human mononuclear cells for quality control in clinical immunology I. Correlations in recovery of K- and NK-cell functions, surface markers, and morphology. J Clin Immunol 2:214–221, 1982Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kung PC, Goldstein G, Reinherz EL, Schlossman: Monoclonal antibodies defining distinctive human T-cell surface antigens. Science 206:347–349, 1979Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Reinherz EL, Kung PC, Goldstein G, Levey RH, Schlossman SF: Discrete states of human intrathymic differentiation: Analysis of normal thymocytes and leukemic lymphoblasts of T-cell lineage. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:1588–1592, 1979Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Reinherz EL, Kung PC, Goldstein G, Schlossman SF: Separation of functional subsets of human T-cells by a monoclonal antibody. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:4061–4065, 1979Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thomas Y, Sosman J, Irigoyen O, Friedman SM, Kung PC, Goldstein G, Chess L: Functional analysis of human T-cell subsets defined by monoclonal antibodies I. Collaborative T-T interactions in the immunoregulation of B-cell differentiation. J Immunol 125:2402–2408, 1980Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rao PE, Talle MA, Kung PC, Goldstein G: Five epitopes of a differentiation antigen on human inducer T-cells distinguished by monoclonal antibodies. Cell Immunol 80:310–319, 1983Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stohl W, Kunkel HG: Heterogeneity in expression of the T4 epitope in black individuals. Scand J Immunol 20:273–278, 1984Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Goldstein G, Lifter J, Mittler R: Monoclonal antibodies to human lymphocyte surface antigens.In Monoclonal Antibodies and T-Cell Products, D Katz (ed). Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 1982, pp 71–85Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Meeker TC, Miller R, Link M, Bindl J, Warnke R, Levy R: A unique human B-lymphocyte antigen defined by a monoclonal antibody. Hybridoma 3:305–320, 1984Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dimitriu-Bona A, Burmester GR, Waters SJ, Winchester RJ: Human mononuclear phagocyte differentiation antigens I. Patterns of antigenic expression on the surface of human monocytes and macrophage defined by monoclonal antibodies. J Immunol 130:145–152, 1983Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Herrmann F, Komischke B, Odenwald E: Use of monoclonal antibodies as a diagnostic tool in human functions in the immunoregulation of 1B-cell differentiation. J Immunol 125:2402–2408, 1980Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Phillips JH, Babcock GF: NKP-15: A monoclonal antibody reactive against purified human natural killer cells and granulocytes. Immunol Lett 6:143–157, 1983Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lampson LA, Levy R: Two population of IA-like molecules on a human B-cell line. J Immunol 125:293–298, 1980Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bono MR, Strominger JL: Direct evidence of homology between human DC-1 antigen and murine I-A molecules. Nature 299:836–840, 1982Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ritchie AWS, Gray RA, Micklem HS: Right angle light scatter: A necessary parameter in flow cytometric analysis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Immunol Meth 64:109–114, 1983Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    SAS: Regression.In SAS Users Guide: Statistics, 1982 Edition. SAS, Cary, NC, 1982, pp 3–112Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fuller TC, Trevithick JE, Fuller AA, Colvin RB, Cosimi AB, Kung PC: Antigenic polymorphism of the T4 differentiation antigen expressed on human T helper/inducer lymphocytes. Hum Immunol 9:89–102, 1984Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Miller LG, Goldstein G, Murphy M, Ginns LC: Reversible alterations in immunoregulatory T-cells in smoking. Analysis by monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. Chest 82:526–529, 1982Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ginns LC, Goldenheim PD, Miller LG, Burton RC, Gillick L, Colvin RB, Goldstein G, Kung PC, Hurwitz C, Kazemi H: T-lymphocyte subsets in smoking and lung cancer. Analysis by monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. Am Rev Resp Dis 126:265–269, 1982Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tollerud DJ, Clark JW, Brown LM, Neuland CY, Mann DL, Pankiw-Trost CK, Blattner WA, Hoover RN: The effects of cigarette smoking on T-cell subsets: A population-based survey of healthy caucasians. Am Rev Resp Dis (in press).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Karayalcian G, Rosner F, Sawitsky A: Pseudoneutropenia in Negroes: A normal phenomenon. NY State J Med 72:1815–1817, 1972Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Reuben JM, Hersh EM, Mansell PW, Newell G, Rios A, Rossen R, Goldstein AL, McClure JE: Immunological characteristics of homosexual males. Cancer Res 43:897–904, 1983Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hersh EM, Mensell PWA, Reuben JM, Frank J, Rios A, LaPushin R, Newell G: Leukocyte subset analysis and related immunologic findings in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and malignancies. Diag Immunol 1:168–174, 1983Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tollerud DJ, Clark JW, Brown LM, Neuland CW, Mann DL, Blattner WA, Hoover RN: Systemic lupus erythematosus with deficiency of the T4 epitope on T4 helper/inducer cells. N Engl J Med 313:1544 (letter)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mylvaganam R, Ahn YS, Harrington WJ, Kim CI, Gratzner HG: Differences in T-cell subsets between men and women with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Blood 66:967–972, 1985Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Henny FC, Weening JJ, Baldwin WM, Oljans PJ, Tanke HJ, van Es LA, Paul LC: Expression of HLA-DR antigens on peripheral blood T lymphocytes and renal graft tubular epithelial cells in association with rejection. Transplantation 412:479–483, 1986Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Martis GE, Magruder L, Patrick K: normal human blood density gradient lymphocyte subset analysis I. An interlaboratory flow cytometry analysis. J Leukocyte Biol 35:11–16, 1984Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. J. Tollerud
    • 1
  • J. W. Clark
    • 1
  • L. Morris Brown
    • 1
  • C. Y. Neuland
    • 2
  • L. K. Pankiw-Trost
    • 2
  • W. A. Blattner
    • 1
  • R. N. Hoover
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Epidemiology BranchNational Cancer InstituteBethesda
  2. 2.Braton BiotechRockville

Personalised recommendations