Advertisement

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 151–162 | Cite as

Psychometric vs. attentional correlates of early onset alcohol and substance abuse

  • David L. Pogge
  • John Stokes
  • Philip D. Harvey
Article

Abstract

Adolescent inpatients with a diagnosis of alcohol abuse (n=28), nonalcohol substance abuse disorders (n=15), or psychiatric disorders without substance abuse (n=46) were examined on measures of attentional, intellectual, and personality functioning. High scores on a personality measure, the Substance Abuse Proclivity Scale (SAP), was the best predictor of substance abuse in general. Alcohol abusers were differentiated from other substance abusers by their increased impairment on the Continuous Performance Test. Adolescents with alcohol abuse did not manifest the types of cognitive impairments associated with chronic alcoholism. These data suggest that certain attentional impairments may be associated with early onset alcohol abuse and that earlier conceptions of the role of attentional impairments in risk prediction for alcohol abuse are supported.

Keywords

Alcohol Cognitive Impairment Substance Abuse Psychiatric Disorder Good Predictor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alterman, A. I., Petrarulo, E., Tarter, R. E., & McGowan, J. R. (1982). Hyperactivity and alcoholism: Familial and behavioral correlates.Addictive Behaviors, 7, 413–421.Google Scholar
  2. Alterman, A. I., & Tarter, R. E. (1986). An examination of selected typologies: Hyperactivity, familial, and antisocial alcoholism.Recent Developments in Alcoholism, 4, 169–189.Google Scholar
  3. Cocores, J. A., Davies, R. K., Mueller, P. S., & Gold, M. S. (1987). Cocaine abuse and adult attention deficit disorder.Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 48, 376–377.Google Scholar
  4. DeObaldia, R., & Parsons, O. A. (1984). Relationship of neuropsychological performance to primary alcoholism and self-reported symptoms of childhood minimal brain dysfunction.Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 45, 386–392.Google Scholar
  5. Eyre, S. L., Rousanville, B., & Kleber, H. (1982). History of childhood hyperactivity in a clinic population of opiate addicts.Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 170, 522–529.Google Scholar
  6. Gawin, F. M., Kleber, H. D., Byck, R., Rousanville, B. J., Kosten, T. R., Jatlow, P. I., & Morgan, C. (1989). Desipramine facilitation of initial cocaine abstinence.Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 117–121.Google Scholar
  7. Graham, J. R. (1987).The MMPI: A practical guide (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Hallikas, J. A., Meller, J., Morse, C. & Lyttle, M. D. (1990). Predicting substance abuse in juvenile offenders: Attention deficit disorder versus aggressivity.Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 21, 49–55.Google Scholar
  9. Halperin, J. M., Wolf, L. E., Pasculvaca, D. M., Newcorn, J. H., Healey, J. M., O'Brien, J. D., Morganstern, A., & Young, J. G. (1988). Differential assessment of attention and impulsivity in children.Journal of the Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 326–329.Google Scholar
  10. Harvey, P., Winters, K., Weintraub, S., & Neale, J. M. (1981). Distractibility in children vulnerable to psychopathology.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 298–304.Google Scholar
  11. Heaton, R. M. (1981).Wisconsin Card Sorting Test manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  12. Hechtman, L., & Weiss, G. (1986). Controlled prospective 15-year followup of hyperactives as adults: nonmedical drug and alcohol abuse and antisocial behavior.Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 31, 557–567.Google Scholar
  13. Hechtman, L., Weiss, G., & Perlman, T. (1984). Hyperactives as young adults: Past and current substance abuse and antisocial behavior.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 54, 415–425.Google Scholar
  14. Heiman, E. M. (1983). Use of stimulants for alcoholic patients with attention deficit disorder.American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 1272.Google Scholar
  15. Horton, A. M., Fiscella, R. A., O'Connor, K., Jackson, M., & Stone, D. G. (1987). Revised criteria for detecting alcoholic patients with attention deficit disorder, residual type.Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 175, 371–372.Google Scholar
  16. Lezak, M. D. (1983).Neuropsychological assessment (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Loberg, T. (1986). Neuropsychological findings in the early and middle phases of alcoholism. In I. Grant and K. Adams (Eds.),Neuropsychological assessment of neuropsychiatric disorders (pp. 415–440). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. MacAndrew, C. (1979). On the possibility of psychometric detection of persons prone to the abuse of alcohol and other substances.Addictive Behaviors, 4, 11–20.Google Scholar
  19. MacAndrew, C. (1986). Toward psychometric detection of substance abuse in young men: The SAP scale.Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 47, 161–166.Google Scholar
  20. Moore, R. H. (1986). The concurrent and construct validity of the MacAndrew Scale among at risk adolescent males.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 1284–1289.Google Scholar
  21. Neuchterlein, K. H., Edell, W., Norris, M., & Dawson, M. E. (1986). Attentional vulnerability indicators, thought disorder, and negative symptoms.Schizophrenia Bulletin, 12, 408–426.Google Scholar
  22. O'Dougherty, M., Nuechterlein, K. H., & Drew, B. (1984). Hyperactive and hypoxic children: Signal detection, sustained attention, and behavior.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93, 178–191.Google Scholar
  23. Oltmanns, T. F. (1978). Selective attention in manic and schizophrenic psychoses: The effect of distraction on information processing.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 212–225.Google Scholar
  24. Pogue-Geile, M. F., & Oltmanns, T. F. (1980). Sentence perception and distractibility in schizophrenic, manic, and depressed patients.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89, 185–193.Google Scholar
  25. Rosvold, H. E., Misrky, A., Sarason, I., Bransome, E. D., & Beck, L. H. (1956). A continuous performance test of brain damage.Journal of Consulting Psychology, 20, 343–350.Google Scholar
  26. Seidel, W. T., & Joschko, M. (1990). Evidence of difficulties in sustained attention in children with ADDH.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18, 217–229.Google Scholar
  27. Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B. W., & Gibbon, M. (1987).The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IIIR. New York: Biometrics Research.Google Scholar
  28. Tarter, R. L. (1982). Psychosocial history, minimal brain dysfunction, and differential drinking patterns of male alcoholics.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 867–873.Google Scholar
  29. Wielgus, M. S., & Harvey, P. D. (1988). Dichotic listening and recall in schizophrenia and mania.Schizophrenia Bulletin, 14, 689–700.Google Scholar
  30. Wisnieski, N. M., Glenwick, D., & Graham, J. R. (1985). MacAndrew scale and sociodemographic correlates of adolescent alcohol and drug use.Addictive Behaviors, 10, 55–67.Google Scholar
  31. Wood, D., Wender, P. E., & Reimherr, F. W. (1983). The prevalence of attention deficit disorder, residual type or minimal brain dysfunction in a population of male alcoholic patients.American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 95–98.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • David L. Pogge
    • 1
    • 2
  • John Stokes
    • 3
  • Philip D. Harvey
    • 4
  1. 1.Four Winds HospitalKatonah
  2. 2.Fairleigh Dickinson UniversityTeaneck
  3. 3.Pace UniversityNew York
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryMt. Sinai School of MedicineNew York

Personalised recommendations