Advertisement

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 409–428 | Cite as

Attention deficit, conduct, oppositional, and anxiety disorders in children: III. Laboratory differences

  • John S. Werry
  • Gail S. Elkind
  • Jan C. Reeves
Article

Abstract

Children aged 5–13 years with DSM-III diagnoses of Attention Deficit (ADDH), Anxiety, (ANX), or Conduct plus ADDH (HC) Disorder and matched normal controls were compared on a set of laboratory measures of impulsivity, arousal, motor performance, activity level, and cognition, and on behavior ratings during testing. While ANX patients did not differ from their controls, ADDH and HC patients did on Verbal IQ, most of the behavior ratings, and on about one-third of the test variables. ANX patients were about 1 year older, and more likely to be female, than ADDH and HC patients. When age, sex, and verbal IQ effects were partialed out, very few differences among the three diagnostic groups remained. The importance of precise control of such variables is emphasized and the impact of the failure to do so in past studies is discussed. The question is raised whether the deficit in verbal IQ is not so much a defect of matching as the essential feature of ADDH from which most of the other commonly reported cognitive symptoms stem.

Keywords

Normal Control Anxiety Disorder Essential Feature Past Study Attention Deficit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aman, M. G. (1979). Cognitive, social, and other correlates of specific reading retardation.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 7, 153–168.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1980).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington D.C.: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Barkley, R. A. (1981a).Hyperactive children: a handbook for diagnosis and treatment (pp. 146–188). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  4. Barkley, R. A. (1981b). Hyperactivity. In E. J. Mash & L. G. Terdal (Eds.),Behavioral assessment of childhood disorders (pp. 127–184). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  5. Rentier, P., & McClain, J. (1976). A multitrait-multimethod analysis of reflection-impulsivity.Child Development, 47, 218–226.Google Scholar
  6. Campbell, S. B., & Werry, J. S. (1986). Attention deficit disorder (Hyperactivity). In H. C. Quay & J. S. Werry (Eds.),Psychopathological disorders of childhood (3rd ed., pp. 111–153). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. Cappella, B., Gentile, J. R., & Juliano, D. B. (1977). Time estimation by hyperactive and normal children.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 44, 787–790.Google Scholar
  8. Conners, C. K. (1969). A teacher rating scale for use in drug studies with children.American Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 152–156.Google Scholar
  9. Costello, E. J., Edelbrock, C. S., & Costello, A. J. (1985). Validity of NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 574–596.Google Scholar
  10. Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1981).Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-revised manual, forms L and M. Circle Pines, Minnesota: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  11. Eysenck, H. J. (1969).The biological basis of personality. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  12. More, A., Croft, C., & Reid, N., (1981).Burt Word Reading Test, New Zealand revision, teacher's manual. Wellington: Lithoprint.Google Scholar
  13. Gittelman-Klein, R., Klein, D. F., Katz, S., Saraf, K., & Pollack, E. (1976). Comparative effects of methylphenidate and thioridazine in hyperkinetic children.Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 1217–1231.Google Scholar
  14. Hicks, R. E., Ellen, D. A., & Mayo, J. P. (1984). A developmental study of temporal duration judgments.Journal of Genetic Psychology, 144, 31–38.Google Scholar
  15. Kagan, J. (1965). Reflection-impulsivity and reading ability in primary age children.Child Development, 36, 609–628.Google Scholar
  16. Klove, H. (1963). Clinical neuropsychology.Medical Clinics of North America, 47, 1647–1658.Google Scholar
  17. Knights, R. M., & Moule, A. D. (1968). Normative data on the motor steadiness battery for children.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 26, 643–650.Google Scholar
  18. Koriath, U., Gualtieri, C. T., Van Bourgondien M. E., Quade, D., & Werry, J. S. (1985). Construct validity of clinical diagnosis in pediatrie psychiatry: Relationship among measures.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24, 429–436.Google Scholar
  19. Levy, F., & Hobbes, G. (1979). The influence of social class and sex on sustained attention (vigilance) and motor inhibition in children.Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 13, 231–234.Google Scholar
  20. Maccoby, E. E., Dowley, E. M., Hagan, J. W., & Degerman, R. (1965). Activity level and intellectual functioning in normal preschool children.Child Development, 36, 761–770.Google Scholar
  21. Milich, R., & Kramer, J. (1984). Reflections on impulsivity: An empirical investigation. In K. Gadow & I. Bialer (Eds.),Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities (Vol. 3, pp. 57–94). Greenwich, Connecticut: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  22. Mowbray, R. M. (1981). Psychometrics and psychopharmacology. In G. D. Burrows & J. S. Werry (Eds.),Advances in human psychopharmacology (Vol. 2, pp. 129–182). Greenwich, Connecticut: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  23. Nowicki, S., Jr., & Strickland, B. R. (1973). A locus of control scale for children.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 40, 148–154.Google Scholar
  24. Quay, H. C. (1986a). Classification. In H. C. Quay & J. S. Werry (Eds.),Psychopathological disorders of childhood (3rd ed., pp. 1–34). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  25. Quay, H. C. (1986b). Conduct disorders. In H. C. Quay & J. S. Werry (Eds.),Psychopathological disorders of childhood (3rd ed., pp. 35–72). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  26. Reeves, J. C., Werry, J. S., Elkind, G. S., & Zametkin, A. (1987). Attention deficit, conduct, oppositional and anxiety disorders in children: II. Clinical characteristics.Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 133–143.Google Scholar
  27. Ross, D. M., & Ross, S. A. (1982).Hyperactivity: Theory, research, and action (2nd ed., pp. 61–94). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  28. Rosvold, A., Mirsky, A., Sarason, I., Bransome, E., & Beck, L. A. (1956). A continuous performance test of brain damage.Journal of Consulting Psychiatry, 20, 343–350.Google Scholar
  29. Sergeant, J. A., & Scholten, C. A. (1985). On resource strategy limitations in hyperactivity: Cognitive impulsivity reconsidered.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 26, 97–110.Google Scholar
  30. Sprague, R. L., & Toppe, L. K. (1966). Relationship between activity level and delay of reinforcement.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 3, 390–397.Google Scholar
  31. Sternberg, S. (1969a). Memory scanning: Mental processes revealed by reaction time experiments.American Scientist, 57, 421–457.Google Scholar
  32. Sternberg, S. (1969b). The discovery of processing stages: Extentions of Donder's method.Acta Psychologica, 30, 276–315.Google Scholar
  33. Taylor, E. A. (Ed.). (in press).The overactive child: Clinics in developmental medicine No. 95. Oxford: S.I.M.P./Blackwell.Google Scholar
  34. Werry, J. S., Reeves, J. C., & Elkind, G. S. (1987). Attention deficit, conduct, oppositional and anxiety disorders in children: I. A review of research on differentiating characteristics.Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 144–155.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • John S. Werry
    • 1
  • Gail S. Elkind
    • 1
  • Jan C. Reeves
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Science, School of MedicineUniversity of AucklandAuckland

Personalised recommendations